What is the Course About?

Could be called "creative problem solving." Also about innovation in the sense of providing you AS A GROUP with tools to facilitate innovation. Pedagogical push for equipping you with skills you can use with other people to create cool stuff. A bit like teaching you to play baseball or sing harmony.

  1. Book review pitched at your colleagues
  2. Process book: workbook for first half of course and design process book for second half
  3. Product, Presentation, team contribution
  4. Idea/practical oral exam
Great Examples Warehouse
  1. Doug Dietz "re-designs" MRI machine to make it fun for kids (Kelley and Kelley pp13ff)
  2. Edison and thousands of failures (Kelley and Kelley pp40ff)
  3. Wright brothers, lots of failed flights (Kelley and Kelley pp41ff)
  4. Steelcase Node chair (Kelley and Kelley pp41-2ff) (Steelcase, IDEO, FastCompany)
  5. IDEO Shopping Cart (see video(s))
  6. Embrace Baby Warmer (see video(s))
  7. Ceramics instructor who splits class into half graded by quality and half by quantity.

Course Outline

  1. Welcome and Intro
  2. Listening and Watching
  3. From Data to Insights
  4. Making Ideas Happen
  5. From Idea to World
  6. Presentations, Pitches, and Critiques
  7. Problems Worth Solving
  8. More Tools
  9. More Tools
  10. Pitch and Catch
  11. Pitch and Catch
  12. Presentations and Pitches

The framework I am using for conceptualizing the learning goals of the course is "reflexes" and "repertoire." The first refers to habits of mind and habits of work, general orientations with which the course will provide an encounter that I hope amounts to exposure, motivation, and trying out.(1
My tentative listing under these headings looks like this:

Habits of mind:

  • Curiosity: not knowing is never a resting point
  • Empiricism: you recognize when it's "something we could find out" and you have the urge to figure out how to do so
  • Flexible Thinking: associationism, analogization; capacity to switch paradigms and perspective, to move between lumping and splitting
  • Progressive Refinement: the capacity (and urge) to bracket, to defer detail, to abstract
  • Intentionality: everything done for a reason (See exercise below under week 4)

Habits of work:

  • work done daily: exploitation of routinization and mundanity2
  • organized persistence
  • contribute to and participate in a collegial "ecology of production"3
  • Deliberate temporality: punctuality, planning, speed, coordination
  • Externalization and materialization: visualization, making, prototyping, recording
  • recording

Course Workbook

Each member of the class will maintain a course workbook. For the first half of the course this will be an actual prepared notebook with questions and spaces for answers (likely a digital book as a Google Doc) which you will fill out. Later, you'll be responsible for extending this with your own material.

Software Tools

We will use an eclectic suite of software tools during the course of the semester. They are chosen for a combination of task-appropriateness and ease of access (meaning we all have them or they are free). For general classroom and team communication and file sharing we will use Slack. It's both a great tool for this purpose and one that you should be familiar with. For documents, slides, and spreadsheets we will use Google docs. For creating online portfolios and as a course LMS we will use Wikidot (the platform on which you are reading this document).

Live the Problem Before You Live the Solution

We will deliberately discourage solution focused work. In fact, we will intensify our experience with the problem side and streamline the solution side into rapid prototyping and iteration. To some degree this is artificial - in reality we often have to spend a lot of time inhabiting a solution in order to bring it to life, but the pedagogical corrective we are aiming at has a stubborn enemy: creative people fall in love with their own ideas all the time. One element of human centred design is to break ourselves of that very human habit.

Which brings us to the idea - we'll explore it more fully later - that we are going to think about the "human" part in three modes here. Human's as whom we are designing for; humans as who is doing the designing; and human systems, cultures, and institutions as the arena in which both our work and our products exist. But more on that later.

What is Design?

One premise from which we will proceed was put forth by Herbert Simon: "Everyone designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones."4

A more sterile definition can be found in Wikipedia: "a specification of an object, manifested by an agent, intended to accomplish goals, in a particular environment, using a set of primitive components, satisfying a set of requirements, subject to constraints"

ONGOING ASSIGNMENT: wish i'd designed that/glad i didn't not design that - photograph and explanation of why you think something smacks of great or poor (or no) design. We'll have a form to fill out - asking about for whom, etc. This will be a part of the workbook.

Problems Worth Solving

A subtitle for the course might be "A Course in Creative Problem Solving." So, an initial reading from Osborn on "creative problem solving"

Arc/Trajectory of the Course

1 Welcome and Intro

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CALL get-the-readings (hcdintro,no)

  1. Welcome
    • Hello Video
    • People Introductions
    • Course Mechanics (includes Design Process Journal description)
  2. A First Design Challenge > Groups > Visual Telephone
  3. Tutorial: Interviewing 101
    • For next time (do interviews, write them up, do good and bad design logs)

HELLO VIDEO: moon shot? + JOBS/LIBERAL ARTS? + hcd two minutes pieces?

SOME WHY MATERIAL: The purpose of this course is to convince you that something is a good idea and to train you in a number of techniques that will be useful for doing that thing in your own work. OK, we should say more…


COURSE MECHANICS: What are we working with? We meet once a week twelve times for three hours. As a graduate course we expect 2-3 hours of work outside of class for each hour in class. In general, we'll try to divide the time in class in either three 50 minute sessions or two 80 minute sessions. Out of class work will be a mix of reading/viewing, practical work (e.g., conducting interviews), and written exercises.

In terms of marked work, we'll be looking at the following:

  • (15) Timely completion of a "workbook" of design exercises related to in- and out-of-class work during the first half of the course. More on this below.
    • one thinker to quote is Bruner who noted "we know little about the use of the notebook, the sketch, the outline in reflective work."5]]
    • also, C. Wright Mills "On Intellectual Craftsmanship
    • another source on sketch books?
  • (10) A book review written for your classmates
  • (10) Contribution to team product for first half of course
  • (10) Active participation in class workshops during the semester
  • (15) Mid-term conceptual exam
  • (20) Process book/journal covering second half of the course
  • (20) Contribution to final product/presentation

Quick Exercise #1. On a sheet of paper, write a definition of "design." (1) Then confer with one classmate (swap paper, read, talk about it, formulate a consensus (2)). Now pair your pair with another pair. Swap, confer in the original pair (1), confer as foursome, generate a consensus definition. Let's hear from each group.

Somewhere along the line we have to do "What is design?" Let's collect some answers:

The warranting of pause, and careful consideration, between the conceiving of an action and a fashioning of the means to carry it out, and an estimation of its effects. …to give form and order to the amenities of life, whether in the context of manufacture, or of place and occasion6

How does it break down? Potter suggests "product design (things), environmental design (places), and communication design (messages). (11.3)

OK, but what about "design thinking"? Kelley and Kelley start with "Design thinking is a methodology" (25) and they are driven by the idea that it is a set of skills (mindsets, ways of approaching things) that can be used in all sorts of endeavors. One element for them is Creative Confidence:

growth mindset vs. fixed mindset: "belief that your innovations skills and capabilities are not set in stone" (30)

ASSIGNMENT: Draw a mind map of "design" and locate your interests on that map

DESIGN CHALLENGE: Every semester thousands of students are handed a syllabus at the start of new classes. How useful is that document (to the student? to the instructor? to whom else?)? Could it be made more useful?

We will form groups "randomly" with the proviso that we will try to avoid joining teams with people we already know (well).

And then we will play a game called "visual telephone." Some of the take-aways from this exercise are:

  1. creative solidarity when you are having fun
  2. drawing on both sides of the brain
  3. value of oscillation between modes of thought
  4. value of communicating in pictures and words
  5. value of allowing ourselves to be inspired by work of others
  6. value of sequentializing our contributions, taking turns, and switching between solo and group work
  7. two-sides to "lost in translation"
  8. getting over our "creativity scars" (think too about the humiliation game in David Lodge novel or here)

MINI-LECTURE: Ethnographic Interviewing for Absolute Beginners

YOU ARE NOT THE USER. AND THESE ARE NOT HUMANS - slides from my research lecture on getting outside your bubble. Some interview "techniques":

  • grand tour question "walk me through your day"
  • "Show me" - ask to be walked around, take pictures, ask for captions (Kelley & Kelley, 97)
  • "Draw it for me" - pictures or diagrams (Kelley & Kelley, 97)
  • Five "Whys" (Kelley & Kelley, 97)
  • Think aloud (see below)

One impediment to interviewing is feeling like you are taking up the interviewee's time. On one side, this is a good thing: you should be mindful of the fact that interviewees are doing you a favor by agreeing to talk with you. Gratitude and respect are in order. But most of us are by nature a bit shy, a bit afraid of talking to strangers, etc. And we often allow this anxiety to hide behind the sentiment of not wanting to bother people. In other words, we make a virtue of our incapacity. This we should overcome. One way to push past this is to recognize that there is some value to being interviewed - one can get something out of both ends of this relationship. Many people are delighted that someone is interested, that someone cares to listen to them. They have a chance to say things for which there had not previously been an audience. They can put into words some ideas and thoughts that had been only vaguely formulated. We must never take this for granted, but it's important to know you are likely not ONLY imposing.7

Lecture on interviewing will introduce types of interviewees. "Extreme Users," boosters, critics, observers (e.g., teachers who watch kids use something all day long). See K&K p 91 (forklift operator with foot spa). "Latent Needs" - the ones folks won't think to mention in an interview. Key informants.


  2. Interview notes, reflection, and initial coding
  3. READ
    1. Some things about HCD in general
    2. Some things about ethnography, interviews, etc.
    3. Something that points toward downloading and aggregating

2 Listening and Watching

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CALL get-the-readings (emprsrchdoc,no)

Lecture is "Empathy, Research, and Document"

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
    • For next time:

In the SECOND CLASS we will focus on downloading, clustering, abstracting, insights, p.o.v. statements, and how might we statements leading us up to a brainstorming session.

CLASS TWO will have a mini idea hack for semester project topics.

We finish that class with SIX HATS exercise so that we have the six hats tools going into the brainstorm/ideation phase next week.

Do we introduce creative listening at this point?

HOMEWORK 2 includes everyone having 2-3 GREEN/YELLOW meetings
HOMEWORK 2 includes a one-problem exercise that will feed into the mini-idea hack.

A sampling of concepts/mental skills we cover in the first few classes:

  • convergent/divergent thinking
  • creative confidence
  • getting the world to talk and learning to listen and watch
  • how do we "process" what we see and hear QUA data
    • data aggregation and counting
    • tagging and themes
    • summarizing (trends, tendencies, distributions) and visualizing
    • 2x2 tables, attribute spaces
  • how do we "process" what we see and hear QUA user information

Whole point of the above is to transition us from us listening to users to us thinking creatively in brainstorming. So you can think of this as setting up the brainstorm.

Important piece of this step being successful is that we have to have had an effective download of user data - everyone participating has to have solid grasp of what's been learned.

How to Draw! Have a look at How to draw anything (Napkin Academy Red Belt lesson) from Dan Roam, author of Back of the Napkin. See also comments in K&K p 59

"Research Exercise: "fly on the wall" in customer comments online. See K&K p. 45 for their instructions. What do we learn about users from this? We'll use Amazon reviews where there are at least N comments and at least M% are 1,2, or 3 star.

EXERCISE Narrating User Experience

In this assignment you will record and transcribe another person's thoughts during the solution of a problem. Find a person who is willing to carry out some task and speak out loud their thinking as they go about it. The task should be one that involves some level of hard thinking (say, solving a crossword puzzle) or slow thinking (say, taking apart a watch) or uncertainty (say, exploring a dark room). You might have to do it more than once to get "good" results. Record up to five minutes

On "talking your thoughts" as you solve a problem as a way of learning about thinking: John-Steiner mentions Piaget and H. Simon as using this technique.

3 From Data to Insights

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We send the team out to watch and listen and each member returns with a stock of observations (and maybe even insights). But THE TEAM is only in some formal sense in possession of these stocks of knowledge. How do we effectively "download" what each team member has learned into the "team mind"? We've all been in groups where someone tried to solve this problem by asking "who wants to start?" or "who has something interesting to report?" Frustration and something less than collective enlightenment follows.

We will describe some techniques for team members to process their own observations and some techniques for sharing observations with the rest of the team and techniques for making sense of the shared observations.

Our goal for this session is to map out a path from individual team members brining data and observations to the table to the team as a whole discovering insights that can inform its posing of "how might we?" questions that kick off the following ideation phase.

CALL get-the-readings (obs2ideate,no)

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
    • For next time:


  • Chapter 4 "From Groupthink to Group Genius" in Sawyer.
  • Something from Osborn
  • IDEO rules
  • Ryan on oscillation

Reading for this week to include something from original work by Osborn? And something about IDEO's list of practices. Part of what we will be doing when we learn to brainstorm is to understand the context in which IDEO brainstorming rules make sense. We'll implicitly consider the 1958 ASQ study that showed value of alternating solo think time with group work time AND the value of prompting participants with "ideas will be judged for originality and value."

Note that we have two components to ideation: generation of ideas and evaluation of ideas. It's not hard for groups to do stupid on both of these. Sawyer reports on psychological research about how this happens. First there's "production blocking" - your mind is distracted by other people's ideas, trying to get the floor, etc. when it should be doing original thinking. Topic fixation is when folks get anchored on an idea already thrown out. People have used digital brainstorming and "brainwriting" as antidotes to this. Social inhibition is another obvious block. We try to attenuate this with "no idea is stupid," "no judgment," "everyone is equal" (and making sure the boss sits among the group and things like that), but to how much effect? A third one mentioned by Sawyer is "social loafing" - a sort of bystander effect or tragedy of the commons problem. What common cognitive biases should we mention along the way here?

We could lay out some "findings"

  • Higher group cohesiveness » More likely to reach bad decisions. (Compare this to my group work as hug).

Tacit knowledge is critical but too much can be bad. But it might be something other than just "too much" - maybe the problem is when the tacit is too tacit. We get errors borne of the assumption of consensus where it is lacking AND this is mixed with the certainty about the consensus means it is never tested or explored. Ideas and beliefs become a bit more like inert gasses? Lose their labile quality?

We can explore different ways to take advantage of a team. One is simple division of labor - divide the tasks, execute in parallel, combine the results. Another is hierarchical - we "organize" and pass work/ideas/commands up and down the chain. And there is simple additive like when we are all out picking vegetables or fruit. We each go into the fields with a basket and we return with our harvest and add it to the collective. But how about structuring our creative process. Explicit and deliberate riffing off one another's ideas. Example: make a list of ideas, pass it on to the next person, they select the ones they find most compelling, then pass again. After they've gone all the way round each person presents their list of most compelling ideas.

Note that each of these approaches is responding to a different problematicness being recognized in the problem. One is that there is too much work for one person. Another is that different skills are required. Another

Exercise Brainstorm Circle. Pose a "how might we" question and then have each person make a list of ideas, pass it on to the next person, they select the ones they find most compelling, then pass again. After they've gone all the way round each person presents their list of most compelling ideas. Variation: stop and redo it once or twice now that your creative juices have been inspired. Alternatively, you can always add something to the list you are passing on (but maybe the rule would be that you cannot put your own idea on the compelling list (until the end when you are allowed to say you still think it ought to be there.

Another explicit topic in the workshop/lecture will be "reframing." A subtopic or component will be changing P.o.V. Examples are the Embrace Baby Warmer (from clinician and machine to parent and baby), read K&K pp. 68.1-73.9. Other example Levitt/Black and Decker drills and holes. Others??

Focus will be ideation, clustering, evaluating, choosing and rapid prototyping.

CLASS THREE will have a mini idea hack for semester project topics.

HOMEWORK 3 includes watching video on pitching problems, as well as another round of one problem. At this point we have compiled up to 100 project ideas and for next week each person does a presentation on any one of them trying to recruit people to their team/problem.

  • Keep asking why over and over.
  • "What if there were a…" inhabit the playful subjunctive. Humour me a subjunctive.
  • Reframing Techniques and Examples
    • Black and Decker (Ted Levitt Harvard see K&K 102
    • Embrace baby warmer: not how to make a cheap incubator but how to keep babies warm
    • Seelig $5 challenge
    • Cisco not better video conference but alternative to air travel (K&K p 99)
    • Not "how to make the tool lighter" but "how to make the tool more comfortable to use for long periods"
    • IDEO Munich calls it getting to "Question Zero"
    • Step back from obvious solutions (K&K p 101)
    • Alter P.O.V. (JFK "ask not…") Embrace: not doctors but parents;
    • Uncover the real issue (K&K p 101)
    • Think about the opposite

4 Making Ideas Happen

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CALL get-the-readings (making-ideas-happen,no)

New ideas are the one resource that humans can just simply create out of thin air, as it were. Arguably, they are a big part of what it means to be human. But much else that goes with being human works to inhibit the production of good new ideas. The familiar and the conventional are powerful currents against which new ideas have to struggle.

In this module we will introduce a number of techniques that can help us to access both our individual and collective creative aptitudes.

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
    • For next time:


  • Sawyer, Keith. 2017. "Group Flow," ch. 3 in Group Genius, pp 45-67
  • Schutz, Alfred. yyyy. "Making Music Together"
  • Find good reading on improv.
  • *Virtuoso Teams in HBR


Teams and Collabortion are all the rage, but let's not allow the passing of a bandwagon to be reason enough to jump on it. Note this from Keith Sawyer:

But there's a problem: it turns out that it's hard to collaborate successfully. Brainstorming is a good example: numerous studies have shown that this popular technique is usually a waste of time. There's so much ineffective collaboration and bad teamwork that there's been a backlash. … The truth is that despite the proliferation of advice in the business press, many companies don't know how to foster creative collaboration.

Here's where the research comes in. My research has shown that only certain kinds of collaboration work in the real world - improvisations that are guided and planned, but in a way that doesn't kill the power of improvisation to generate unexpected insights.8

Preparing for improvisation. Dialectic of structure and agency.

Old social science concept of individual rationality leading to collective irrationality. Tragedy of the commons. Shirking. Prisoners Dilemma.

Exercise (Sawyer 34): 20 minutes to make up a game that takes 10 minutes and explain it in 5. Debrief about how the game was made up. Full planning trumped by start and improvise.

Module on how to have team meetings. With examples of different kinds of meeting protocols.

String quartet vs. ensemble with a conductor. Schutz on "Making Music Together"?

Rehearsal and practice. Can we come up with an idea of team rehearsals? Drills. Role plays. Scenario running. Also consider the "warm up" in various activities.

When speaking of design and design thinking, one of the things we mentioned was "intentionality."9 Someone said, "design is about doing everything intentionally." In connection with group and team work we have something similar: "…in every walk of life, from arts and science to business, the highest performers are those who engage in deliberate practice - as they're doing a task, they constantly thinking about how they could be doing it better and looking for lessons that they can use next time. The key is to treat every activity as a rehearsal for next time."10

"Exercise (for workbook).

  1. Identify and describe something you do with intentionality (or something you realize you could do with intentionality but do not or something a friend does with intentionality.
  2. Make a decision to do something new with intentionality. Describe what it is and report on it twice over the course of the next two weeks.

Add in an awareness of FLOW? We speak easily of individual getting into "the zone" but what about teams?

Ryan on constrained liberation. Creative constraint. And this from Sawyer:

The paradox of improvisation is that it can happen only when there are rules and the players share tacit understandings, but with too many rules or too much cohesion, the potential for innovation is lost. The key question facing groups that have to innovate is finding just the right amount of structure to support improvisation, but not so much structure that it smothers creativity." (65)

Never mind that that's rather simplistic and vague. We can use it as a springboard rather than as the last word on the subject.

EXERCISE: 100 metaphors for peak performance. Riding a wave. In the groove. Phrases and examples.

In K&K p 79 Linus Pauling quote: "If you want a good idea, start with a lot of ideas."

Can we adapt a bit of the flow mentality by having instructor meet with each student at least N times for at least M minutes?


When can we do an improve workshop? In conjunction with "yes, and…" habit of mind??

HOMEWORK 4: Create Team Project Wiki and Empty Slide Decks for rest of semester?

5 From Idea to World

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CALL get-the-readings (proto,no)

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
    • For next time:

The reading, lecture, and workshop this week are more serious treatments of research methods and the homework for the week will be to apply these to our projects.

HOMEWORK 5: serious data collection.

6 Presentations, Pitches, and Critiques

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The reading for week six will introduce more analytical methods in more detail and the class will be a working session where we workshop our data using these methods.

HOMEWORK 6: converting our analysis into personas, journeys, and how might we questions in presentations we can do at the start of next class.

7 For Humans, By Humans, Among Humans

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CALL get-the-readings (humans-cubed,no)

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
    • For next time:

When we talk about "human centred design" we first mean design that takes into account the needs of the humans for whom something is being designed. And under that heading the first imperative is to listen, to observe, to add genuine empathy to the design process.

In this module we will expand our attention to "the human" beyond the user qua user. We want to consider multiple ways "human" can be centred in the design process. At the top level, we can identify three:

  • design for human users: this is what we have been talking about so far, but we will try to deepen the consideration of real humans as users in this module
  • design by human designers: here we will think about how what we know about humans (our cognitive biases, for example, or tendencies toward certain forms of social interaction or typical strengths, weaknesses, and biographical baggage that affect our work. (cf. B Brown observation about creativity scars (K&K p. ?)
  • design within human institutions: the arena in which our work takes place, various forms and levels of human social organization.

(connection to failure (not just a personal thing) - learning orgs, long term focus, transparency)

"Returning to the statement that every human is a designer, and using it as a springboard: we do well to remember that designers are ordinary human beings, as prone as others (given half a chance) to every human weakness, including an exaggerated idea of their own consequence.11

8 More Tools

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CALL get-the-readings (more-tools,no)

Icebreaker is spaghetti challenge to get us thinking about how important prototyping is.

Resonant with prototyping is a writer's notes or drafts. We get a sense of the how in this passage from John-Steiner (5)

In describing her methods of work, Mitford sketched an approach that was shared by others: "The first thing to do is to read over what you have done teh day before and rewrite it. And then that gives you a lead into the next thing to do, and then it sort of goes …." Her description illustrates "the dialogue between the thinker and his (sic) written words."12

If we do an assignment that requires repetition or production of many many variations (e.g., of a tagline), note Aaron Copland observation in John-Steiner:

When I asked how he started a new work, the composer hesitated. Clurman [friend of Copland sitting in on the interview] suggested that the start was frequently a single musical phrase that the composer repeated many, many times. Copland smiled and commented, "It sounds rather dull the way you put it, [but] each time you repeat it you have different ideas as to where it might go."13

Compare this to Sawyer's observation about Sid Caesar's "Your Show of Shows" work:

As Mel Brooks remembers it, "jokes would be changed fifty times. We'd take an eight-minute sketch and rewrite it in eight minutes." Their writing followed a problem-finding style, where they rewrote the same scene until something great emerged from the group's genius. (66)

Think about serial entrepreneurs as doing this redrafting thing too. And connect here the admonition to fail early and often. Sneak in the IDEO video, "Learn from Failure," as this is another version of re-doing until we get it right.

Where can we insert a session on The Organization of Creativity?

Astro Teller on organization and innovation
Sawyer on improv???

Between "prototyping" and "iteration" we come again to "failure." Perhaps part of the workbook is to create a draft "Failure Resume" (see Tina Seelig WIWIKWIW20 71-73.

Could we create an exercise or module on HOW to learn from failure?

Under both these, but maybe more iteration, the d.school idea of "push until you face plant." (K&K p44, 49). Insert the video on failure (Tim Brown, Learn from Failure)


ITERATION: example - Wright brothers at Kitty Hawk. Some narrative in Sawyer, ch 1. Sources in his footnote.

Do we sneak ideas from The Clockwork Muse in here? Drafts as iterations.


9 Spare

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  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
    • For next time:

10 Pitch and Catch

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  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
    • For next time:


11 Pitch and Catch

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  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
    • For next time:


12 Presentations and Pitches

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  1. Presentations
  2. Wrapup
Other Refs

Design Project Guide from d.school covers the whole process nicely.