Q458. If you are doing a thesis this year or have a general topic in mind for one in the future, pick two theorists, each from a different section of the course, and show what you have learned about their ideas by "applying" them to your research topic.

Q317. Match the name with the projection.
 South Polar Azimuthal | Mercator | Albers Equal Area Conic | Mollweide | Lambert Conformal Conic | North Polar Azimuthal

Q314. Show how to set snapping options to make vertex matching while drawing polygons by hand easier.

Q105. Following on problem 104, suppose the test is not painless or without its own risks. Suppose the "cost" of the test is 5. And suppose the treatment is also not so nice and the cost of the treatment is 15. But if you have the disease and you are not treated, the results are nasty : 50. Do we have enough information to recommend a course of action? What should we do?

Q417. In the context of game theory/prisoner's dilemma, what does "words are cheap" mean?

Q236. In a prisoner’s dilemma game, the rational thing for both players is to defect. This makes mutual defection an equilibrium, though it is not a preferred one (the collective would be better off with another outcome). In other words, in a single game of prisoner’s dilemma, cooperation is “impossible.” But cooperation does happen in the world.

Demonstrate your understanding of Axelrod's ideas by describing the mechanism and conditions under which this can happen without assuming anything “social” about the agents.

Explain how this works and how it adds to or modifies Smith’s and Hayek’s story about how markets can be a source of social order.

Q84. If the weather is nice, plant a garden. Otherwise paint the office. For the garden, make a decision between flowers and vegetables. If you go for vegetables, buy compost, seeds, and stakes; till the soil, and hook up the irrigation. If it's flowers this year, go to the garden store and if they have 4 inch plants buy enough for the plot and plant them. If they don't then get flats of smaller plants and bring them home and let them get acclimated for a week and then plant them next week. To till the soil, if the ox is healthy, do it with the animal plow, otherwise get out the rototiller.

Q120. My bathtub fills at 10 gallons per minute. It has a leak, though, whereby it loses 10% of it's volume per minute. It's a neat rectangular tub in which each 10 gallons is 2 inches of depth. How does it behave over time?

Q80. If A: until B do C and then, do D if E, otherwise do F while G. Otherwise if H, then if I do J else do K. Do L.

Q101. If the farmer plants early and the spring is warm, she can get a 20% increase in her harvest. But if she plants early and there's a late frost she can lose 50% of her harvest. Historically, these late frosts happen one year in four (25% of the time). Use a decision tree to determine how much she would be willing to invest in a perfect forecast.

Q374. "Social order triumphs over the state of nature by coercion…." Attribute and explain.

Q366. A storyboard is a technique for graphically organizing the telling of a story. Think about how you would explain Mead's theory of the social self as a theory of how the human individual is a vehicle for the generation of social order. Imagine how you would represent the theory visually and how you would explain it textually.

Q127. Consider the singles bar scene. Develop a model along the lines of the market for lemons (Wikipedia), that would suggest that information asymmetries could possibly kill the scene. What institutional interventions prevent this from happening?.

Q2 Sketch, anew, the decision tree for the embassy party described in the text book.

"The officer in charge of a United States Embassy recreation program has decided to replenish the employees club funds by arranging a dinner. It rains nine days out of ten at the post and he must decide whether to hold the dinner indoors or out. An enclosed pavilion is available but uncomfortable, and past experience has shown turnout to be low at indoor functions, resulting in a 60 per cent chance of gaining $100 from a dinner held in the pavilion and a 40 per cent chance of losing$20. On the other hand, an outdoor dinner could be expected to earn $500 unless it rains, in which case the dinner would lose about$10" (Stokey & Zeckhauser 1977, 202).

Q394. What does Weber mean by "the routinization of charisma"? (118ff)

Q221. For each of the problems described below, say whether it is best thought of as an analog to diet, transport, activity, or assignment as outlined above.

1. S&Z problem #1 Incinerators DIET TRANSPORT ACTIVITY ASSIGNMENT
2. S&Z problem #2 Police Shifts DIET TRANSPORT ACTIVITY ASSIGNMENT
3. S&Z problem #3 Hospitals and disasters DIET TRANSPORT ACTIVITY ASSIGNMENT
4. S&Z problem #4 Electricity generation and pollution DIET TRANSPORT ACTIVITY ASSIGNMENT
5. S&Z text example – transit maintenance DIET TRANSPORT ACTIVITY ASSIGNMENT

Q231. A transport company has two types of trucks, Type A and Type B. Type A has a refrigerated capacity of 20 m3 and a non-refrigerated capacity of 40 m3 while Type B has the same overall volume with equal sections for refrigerated and non-refrigerated stock. A grocer needs to hire trucks for the transport of 3,000 m3 of refrigerated stock and 4 000 m3 of non-refrigerated stock. The cost per kilometer of a Type A is $30, and$40 for Type B. How many trucks of each type should the grocer rent to achieve the minimum total cost?

Alternatively

A school district has two types of lower division schools, type A and type B. Type A school buildings have capacity for 200 little kids and 400 big kids. Type B buildings have capacity for 300 little kids and 300 big kids. Next year the district expects enrollments of 3000 little kids and 4000 big kids. Type A buildings cost 30,000 per year to maintain while type B buildings cost 40,000. What mix of school buildings will allow the district to handle the expected enrollment at the lowest maintenance cost? (From VITutor)

Q182. Which threshold frequency distribution corresponds to the following description:

The community has a few people who will join no matter what, a few more who will join if some others have joined, still more who will join if a goodly number are on board and so on all the way up to a hesitant few but even they will join if it appears everyone else has.

 A. B. C. D. E.

Q180. Which of the cumulative frequency distributions below corresponds to this frequency distribution

 A. B. C. D. E.

Q328. Have a look at this recent release from Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). The data separates those without a job into unemployed but "in the labor force" and "marginally attached to the labor force" and a subset of these called "discouraged" - the former would like to work but have not looked in the last four weeks and so are not counted as unemployed. The latter are not actively looking for work having given up on the idea that its possible to find. These groups are not included in the denominator when the unemployment rate is calculated. The simple version of the unemployment rate is, then,

(1)
\begin{align} UR = \frac {Unemployed} {Employed + Unemployed} \end{align}

Some recent op-eds have counseled caution about optimism that the overall unemployment rate has been going down because it might reflect growth in the number of people no longer looking for work. We'll think about that with a Markov model. We'll simplify the states a worker can be in:

• employed (E)
• short term unemployed - 14 weeks or less (US)
• long term unemployed - over 14 weeks (LS)
• Marginally attached to the labor force - no longer looking for a job (MALF)

Let's construct a simplified Markov model of unemployment based on transition rates shown here:

If the unemployment rate is calculated as the ratio of those who are short term unemployed (US) plus those who are long term unemployed (UL) to the total labor force (E + US + UL), how would things evolve over the next twelve months if the starting numbers are these:

What will the unemployment rate be? Even if it is agreed that getting unemployment to near 6% is a policy goal, are there reasons the results might not be a cause for celebration?

Create a chart showing changes over the next 12 months. Suggestion: plot total employment (E) on secondary axis since it's such a large number. In the alternative, put it on a separate chart.

Excel worksheet here

Q303. Show, in QGIS, how to select features individually and by radius, rectangle, etc.

Q336. What does Ludwick Fleck mean by a "thought collective"?

Q35. A researcher asks a respondent, Maria, to list her six closest friends. She says A, B, C, D, E, and F. The researcher then asks which of these friends have you had dinner with in the last week? A, C, D. Which ones have you texted today? A, B, D, F. Which ones did you know before you came to this school? C, D. On whose wall have you posted in the last week? D, E, F.

Show how this information would be recorded in your field notes.

Q296. (1) Read this thematic map. (2) Offer a critique of its graphic design.

Q111. Let's say we have a 2 year graduate program. The first year class is growing at a rapid rate 5% per year. Between the first and second years, 25% of the students change their minds or get jobs and leave the program. Among the second years, 10% leave before graduation. The program currently has 20 first year and 12 second year. Write difference equations to describe population in future years.

Q201. (1) Explain what 'the allegory of the dying seminar' was in Thomas Schelling's work. (2) What (incorrect) conclusion about human behavior might observers draw from the dying seminar? (3) What other examples of this phenomenon does Schelling offer? (4) What generic phenomenon are these all examples of?

Q252. Consider this network in which green agents are cooperators and violet are defectors and the cost of cooperating is 2 while the benefit of being cooperated with is 5. Where is the equilibrium is people's behavior changes based on their network experiences?

Q12. Erikson writes “…the very expression ‘he is a thief’ or ‘he is an addict’ seems to provide at once a description of his position in society and a profile of his character.” How is this relevant for understanding one of the main points of the Rosenhan article?

Q114. A totalitarian country that prohibits migration has a birth rate b and a death rate d. How does the population change from one year to the next?

We can interpret "birth rate" or "death rate" in two ways — as a rate, for example, deaths per 100 people — or as an absolute number, for example, 5 people per year. In general, we will mean the former.

Let $P_{i}$ be the population in year i. Write an expression for the population in year i+1. If the population in a given year is 100 and birth rate, b, is 5% and the death rate, d, is 6%, write out the population for the next 5 years.

Q382. "A central idea in the readings in this section is that government matters" (87). Extend this idea to say that "organizations matter" in an argument about why some hierarchy is needed if we are to cooperate in groups of more than a few to get things done.

Q380. Compare patrimonialism, bureaucracy, and charismatic authority in terms of the efficiency of maintaining order and ensuring loyalty among a leader's staff.

Q78. Sketch a flow chart that represents the following writing protocol: (1) Edit your essay until it is perfect. (2) While the essay still needs work, edit your essay.

Q216. Explicate and comment:

But man has almost constant occasion for the help of his brethern, and it is in vain for him to expect it from their benevolence only. He will be more likley to prevail if he can interest their self-love in his favor, and show them that it is for their own advantage to do for him what he requires of them. Whoever offers to another a bargain of any kind, proposes to do this. Give me that which I want, and you shall have this which you want, is the meaning of every such offer; and it is in this manner that we obtain from one another the far greater part of those offices which we stand in need of. It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest. We address ourselves, not to their humanity but to their self-love, and never talk to them of our own necessities but of their advantages (Smith 1776: 172.5).

Q58. Consider these examples of claimsmaking…

Q370. A storyboard is a technique for graphically organizing the telling of a story. Think about how you would explain Cohen and Vandello's work on violence and cultures of honor as an illustration of theories of how the human individual is a vehicle for the generation of social order. Imagine how you would represent the theory visually and how you would explain it textually.

Q50. What kind of network data might emerge from: tweets, retweets, hashtags? Assume we have powerful access to the Twitter stream (meaning we can grab all the tweets in a given time frame, all the tweets by a set of users, all the tweets that mention a hashtag or a user, etc. And assume we have access to the API and so can take a user name and get a list of who she follows or who follows her.

Describe five different networks we might construct from this data.

Q436. At 242.5 Durkheim writes "Poverty protects against suicide because it is a restraint in itself." What does he mean?

Q253. Consider this network in which green agents are cooperators and violet are defectors and the cost of cooperating is 2 while the benefit of being cooperated with is 5. Where is the equilibrium is people's behavior changes based on their network experiences?

Q324. You are the board chairperson of a small non-profit and you are hiring new executive director. It has come down to two candidates, one rather plain vanilla and, frankly, a bit boring, but rock solid, and the other quite exciting and edgy. After all the interviews and due diligence, you and your board estimate that that with the boring candidate there is a 94% likelihood that she'll be OK, a 5% chance that she'll be amazing, and a 1% chance that she'll be a disaster. You estimate the "value" of OK to be 25, the value of amazing to be 100 and the value of disaster to be -100.

(A) What is the expected value of hiring the boring candidate?

The board estimates that there is a 60% chance that the edgy candidate is amazing and a 40% chance she will be a disaster.

(B) What is the expected value of hiring the edgy candidate? Other things being equal, what is the best decision here?

A consultant friend of your tells you about a personality test that you can administer to job candidates that helps distinguish between those likely to be amazing and those likely to be a disaster.

(C) With the above assumptions, how much would it be worth to have this test to use on your edgy candidate (the test would tell you for sure whether this particular edgy person is the amazing or the disaster type)?

But suppose it's not a perfect test, but it's pretty good. It turns out that with candidates who really are amazing it gets it right about 75% of the time. With those who are actually disasters waiting to happen, it gets that right 90% of the time.

(D) If the test were administered to our edgy candidate and she passed, how likely is it that she'd be amazing? And if she failed, how likely she was actually a disaster?

(E) How much would we be willing to pay for the imperfect test?

Excel Worksheet Here

Q39. Cohesive subgroups problems

Q151. A cinema has a marquee with lots and lots of light bulbs. In any given week 1% of the light bulbs burn out. Unfortunately, between being busy and being sloppy, replacement is a little bit sporadic. Of all the bulbs that are burnt out, about 95% get replaced each week. Draw the state diagram for this system.

Q342. With which theorists do we associate this diagram? Explain what it means in the context of their work.

Q130. In a "bathtub problem," why don't we include the water company or the sewer system to be stocks?

Q462. Sketch a logic model for buying a house.

Q425. What research questions did the "live and let live" phenomenon from WWI raise for Robert Axelrod?

Q480. Convert the data recorded on the cards below into a cases by variables table.

Q269. Explain longitude, latitude, parallels, meridians

Q64. We'll use data on early 20th century Scottish industries to investigate interlocking directorates.

(From Pajek data online) This dataset contains the corporate interlocks in Scotland in the beginning of the twentieth century (1904-5). In the nineteenth century, the industrial revolution brought Scotland railways and industrialization, especially heavy industry and textile industry. The amount of capital needed for these large scale undertakings exceeded the means of private families, so joint stock companies were established, which could raise the required capital. Joint stock companies are owned by the shareholders, who are represented by a board of directors. This opens up the possibility of interlocking directorates. By the end of the nineteenth century, joint stock companies had become the predominant form of business enterprise at the expense of private family businesses. Families, however, still exercised control through ownership and directorships.

The data are taken from the book The Anatomy of Scottish Capital by John Scott and Michael Hughes. It lists the (136) multiple directors of the 108 largest joint stock companies in Scotland in 1904-5: 64 non-financial firms, 8 banks, 14 insurance companies, and 22 investment and property companies (Scotland.net). In this dataset, which was compiled from the Appendix of Scott & Hughes' book, note that two multiple directors (W.S. Fraser and C.D. Menzies) are affiliated with just one board so they are not multiple directors in the strict sense.
The companies are classified according to industry type: 1 - oil & mining, 2 - railway, 3 - engineering & steel, 4 - electricity & chemicals, 5 - domestic products, 6 - banks, 7 - insurance, and 8 - investment. In addition, there is a vector specifying the total capital or deposits of the firms in 1,000 pound sterling.

References

John Scott & Michael Hughes, The anatomy of Scottish capital: Scottish companies and Scottish capital, 1900-1979 (London: Croom Helm, 1980).
W. de Nooy, A. Mrvar, & V. Batagelj, Exploratory Social Network Analysis with Pajek (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), Chapter 5.

History

Original authors: are John Paul Scott (1949) (ku.ca.xesse|jttocs#ku.ca.xesse|jttocs, University of Essex) & Michael Hughes (1947, University of Lancaster in 1980, not listed now).
Data compiled into Pajek data files by W. de Nooy, 2001

Use NodeXL to visualize this data. The data is in three network datasets: a bipartite network of people and companies (edges represent a person being a director of a company); a network of people (the edges are co-membership in companies); and a network of companies (edges are sharing a director).

Task 1: Create a preliminary two mode visualization that shows people as small circles and companies as larger squares. Try different layouts (including manually assisted) and produce the best visualization you can (in a reasonable amount of time). Can you color the companies by industry? Are there individuals who appear to be bridges between industries? Or who appear to be kingpins in a particular industry?

Task 2: Do a quick exploration of the people by people network. Try different visualizations. Calculate graph metrics. It might clarify the visualization if you use dynamic filtering to discard barely connected individuals. Change node size by graph metric. Can you identify a class of apparently important people? Try clustering.

Task 3: Now look at company by company network. Cluster, color, explore. How much do network clusters follow industry? Are there cluster bridging companies? Are you surprised at what they are.

Turn in short paper that shows your explorations.

The data is in the following Excel files.

Q265. Identify graphical elements of a map: border, legend, scalebar, north arrow, author, date, projection, coordinates, data source, data date, title, body of map

Q175. Consider this data on the thresholds in a population. Draw a frequency histogram and cumulative frequency diagram. Plot the cumulative distribution on a chart with a 45 degree line.

Q137. Derive the equation for the equilibrium value of a difference equation from a formula that shows how Pn+1 relates to Pn.

Q448. Why is the Tocqueville selection in the "groups as a source of social order" section of the text?

Q308. Take a basic thematic map of Oakland, set up a print composer, and add graticule and customize annotations.

Q30. Write out your responses to the following.

• Lists
1. Name at least ten areas of human, social, natural phenomena that have been explored by network researchers.
2. Identify/describe three networks you have encountered this week.
3. Name at least five academic disciplines in which the study of networks has become a big deal.
• Meta
1. Newman, et al. mention "theoretical" work, "empirical" work, and modeling as activities associated with network science. What do you understand by each of these?
2. Hansen, et al. (and to a lesser extent other authors here) suggest some grandiose assessments of network science's place in the history of science. Newman et al. hint at some tensions between the kind of data social scientists collect and the tools they have for analyzing them and the kind of data used in the "new science of networks" and the tools brought to the task by physicists and computer scientists. Can you zero in on the passages and identify some of the issues?
3. In sections 1.6-8, Hansen et al. describe applications of social media to public problems, crowdsourcing, and problems of engagement, mentioning, eventually, the term "sociotechnical systems." Meditate a bit on the dual answers this suggests to the question "how can I use my degree in sociology (or whatever your major is)?" — either studying how technology changes the world or being actively involved in designing things that can change the world.
• Real World
1. From how many realms do your facebook friends come? Estimate the macro-structure of your facebook network just based on thinking about it. How does it show the different social circles you are a member of? How does it show your different "sides"? How does it show your personal biography? How big do you think the different clusters are? Can you think of people who link the different clusters together?

Q36. Consider the graph matrix below

 A B C D E A - 0 1 0 1 B 0 - 0 1 1 C 0 1 - 1 1 D 0 0 1 - 0 E 0 1 1 1 -
1. We use $n$ for the number of vertices. What is $n$ here?
2. What is $\sum _{ i=1 }^{ n }{ { A }_{ i4 } }$?
3. What is $\sum _{ j=1 }^{ n }{ { A }_{ 3j } }$?
(2)
\begin{align} \sum _{ i=1 }^{ n }{ { A }_{ i4 } } \end{align}

Q286. When using Leaflet to create a webmap, we use code like this:

var cloudmade = L.tileLayer('http://{s}.tile.cloudmade.com/{key}/{styleId}/256/{z}/{x}/{y}.png', {
attribution: 'Map data &copy; 2011 OpenStreetMap contributors, Imagery &copy; 2011 CloudMade',
key: 'BC9A493B41014CAABB98F0471D759707',
styleId: 22677
})


to create the "attribution" on the map. What does this refer to? Why do we need to do it?

Q327. Our agency provides three types of client service: A, B, and C. And we have 3 kinds of staff: X, Y, and Z.

Each type A service requires 3 hours of an X staff member's time and 1 hour of a Y. Type B requires 2 X, 1 Y, and 3 Z hours. And type C requires 1 X, 3 Y, and 2 Z.

Currently we have 2 X, 1 Y and 1 Z on staff. We pay X's $25 per hour, Ys get$30 and Zs get $40. Assume everyone works a 35 hour week. At 35 hours per week our labor costs are 4200. Revenue from type A service is$100, B is $200, and C is$300.

Regulations require that we serve at least 5 of each client type each week and that we serve at total of at least 21 clients each week.

What client mix will allow us to maximize revenue?

Excel Worksheet here.

Q198. What is "tit-for-tat" and why, according to Robert Axelrod, is it so effective?

Q435. Discuss: Durkheim talks about how society gets us to "accept our lot"; Marx and Engels talk about false consciousness and ideology (we buy into our oppression) and religion as "opiate of the masses"; Weber gave us the notion of legitimate authority. Points of similarity and difference?

Q90. Convert the following statement to “pseudo-Excel” formulas (follow the example to see what we mean by that).
Example. "If it is Tuesday, this must be Belgium, otherwise it is France" would become something like

= if(day="Tuesday","Belgium","France")

If the calculated payment is less than the alternative minimum monthly payment then pay the alternative monthly minimum unless it is more than the remaining balance in which case just pay the balance off. Otherwise pay the calculated payment.

Q432. At 240.5 Durkheim talks about social classification (by which he means the way people are sorted into different roles/occupations/classes in society) and about what the basis of these are (and how we accept them or take them for granted - note that this is what Goffman was talking about too in "The Arrangement Between the Sexes.") Why should (or how can) people be content with their lot in life when they are aware that the lots people have are vastly unequal?

Q469. This is one of a series of problems (470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands. (a) As a part of its considerations about the park project, Ourville needs to think about the opportunity costs associated with each tract of land being considered for the park. What is an opportunity cost? You are nominated to explain (BRIEFLY) in terms the public will understand what we mean by opportunity cost: (b) While discussing the value of the park options to residents the term "willingness to pay" comes up. Explain (BRIEFLY) to the public what this means. Q9. Blank Q126. Why do people scream into cell phones? Answer in terms of feedback. Q337. In "Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact" Ludwik Fleck starts out with the bold statement that "cognition is the most socially-conditioned activity…." Why is this a bold statement? What conventional assumption is he contradicting at the outset? Q234. Hayek is sometimes taken to be saying that the modern world throws up problems that are too complex to be handled by planning and policy making. Some things can be handled that way, but big and complex things cannot. What are the differences between the two types of order and the limitations and possibilities Hayek suggests each has and how does he get from there to social order? Q271. With reference to cartography, explain what we mean by scale, resolution, simplification/abstraction, representation, point, line, area, volume Q292. Name these California counties. Q116. The Eastville School Committee is agrees to an annual$200 per year salary increase for each Eastville teacher. Express this as a difference equation.

Q391. Weber describes "monocratic bureaucracy" as an ideal type. What is an ideal type? Describe the five characteristics of an ideal typical bureaucracy.

20. Explain what is meant by "social control as a dependent variable."

Q136. Write out the difference equation that represents the following scenario and the first five terms of the corresponding sequence given the stated starting value.

1. Membership in a club goes up by 4 people each year. At year one it has 21 members.
2. A community's population increases by 4% each year. At year one it is 350.
3. A swimming pool, currently containing 100,000 gallons of water, is leaking at the rate of 2% per day but is being filled at the rate of 1,000 gallons per day.
4. A retirement account which stands at $120,000 earns 3% interest annually. The owner needs to withdraw$1500 per month to pay for eldercare.

For each of these, graph Pn vs. time.

For each of these, graph Pn+1 vs. Pn

Q295. Locate these prominent California geographic features:

 Cascade Mountains Coastal Mountains Colorado River Kalamath Mountains Mojave Desert Sacramento River Sacramento Valley San Joaquin Valley San Joaquin River Sierra Nevada Mountains

Q288. How would you estimate the number of people who live within 500 meters of MacArthur Blvd in Oakland?

Q335. Consider Marx on the production of consciousness. How important does the kind of work seem to be as over against the kinds interaction among people who do the same kind of work for Marx? Compare, perhaps, Uber drivers and fast food workers. Would Marx expect less or a different kind of shared consciousness among the one or the other?

Q331. Studying for an exam could raise a student's grade by a whole letter grade. But it turns out to not be a sure thing. Suppose research has shown that six hours of studying has a 60% chance of increasing your grade by one letter grade, a 25% chance of having no effect, and a 15% chance of actually lowering it by one letter grade (perhaps due to increased anxiety and not enough sleep).
Calculate the expected value of the investment of 6 hours of study time in terms of "letter grades per hour."

Q239. I need to take a certification exam this year. The exam cost is $200. There is a prep course for the exam, but I don't know if I need it or not. It costs$300 and if one takes it, one is certain to pass the exam. If I do not take the prep course there is a 50% chance of passing and a 50% chance of failing in which case I'd have to take the prep course anyway and then retake the test (total cost = prep course + twice the exam fee). Should I take the prep course??

14. Fill in the focus column of the table below and try to find an example of each in your file. Write a sentence or two explaining how the example illustrates the focus of this style of social control.

 Style Focus Example Penal Compensatory Conciliatory Therapeutic Reform Prevention

Q222. Write out the sample problems on pp 190-2 with explanatory solutions.

Q289. What map is this and what is it "famous" for?

Q388. Explain what Weber means by legal authority.

Q143. Wordsmith this opening sentence:

I will discuss some of the concepts discussed by Erving Goffman in his book The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, which he elaborates face to face interactions, and the different roles that everyone takes in presenting themselves.

Q368. A storyboard is a technique for graphically organizing the telling of a story. Think about how you would explain Durkheim's theory of collective representations (shared meaning) as a theory of how the human individual is a vehicle for the generation of social order. Imagine how you would represent the theory visually and how you would explain it textually.

Q248. What criticism would you offer if the diagram below were my first stab at a flow chart for an organizational process? How would you fix it?

Q107. Our neighborhood association has a ten member board. Each year it plans to add four members. Write the difference equations that describe the size of the board (S) each year.

Q49. Convert this 2-mode data into 1-mode data

Flavor Who Likes It
Chocolate Abe, Bertha, Cyndra, Dalia
Vanilla Abe, Cyndra, Eve, Faisel, Gerd
Strawberry Bertha, Cyndra, Hettie, Iolantha
Pistachio Cyndra, Dalia, Gerd, Hettie, Iolantha

Q74. Sketch a flowchart that represents this bit of logic: “if the balance is less than the minimum alternative payment then just pay the balance, otherwise, pay the minimum alternative payment.”

Q229. Bob builds tool sheds. He uses 10 sheets of dry wall and 15 studs for a small shed and 15 sheets of dry wall and 45 studs for a large shed. He has available 60 sheets of dry wall and 135 studs. If Bob makes $390 profit on a small shed and$520 on a large shed, how many of each type of building should Bob build to maximize his profit? (From solution here)

Q247. What's wrong with this flow chart? How would you fix it?

Q163. Work through this passage by Durkheim:

…it is with the people of his clan that he has most in common, and it is the influence of this group that he feels most immediately, and so it is also this influence, more than any other, that was bound to find expression in religious symbols” (55).

Can you make any connections to Mead's generalized other? Or the generic idea of having some of our mental content being social?

Q102. Kids these days! Of those who get into trouble, it turns out, about 30% are "real trouble-makers" who need some help. The other 70% are normal adolescents who will age out of their trouble-making under normal care. A social worker friend introduces you to a test that you can give to kids who are referred to you to determine which category they are in. Research has suggested the test is 75% accurate. Use tree flipping to describe what to make of the test's results.

Q291. What do we call this kind of map?

Q360. What is the relevance of the diagram below to the Cohen and Vandello excerpt?

Q259. What are the 5+2 means of achieving cooperation in the face of structural arrangements that "mandate" non-cooperation in human relationships?

Q197. Explain and give an example of a dominant strategy in a prisoner's dilemma game.

Q52. If necessary, review the Wikipedia page "matrix multiplication." Then practice with the following

a b
c d
e f

e f g
h i j

1 1 1 0
0 1 0 1

1 1
1 1
1 0
1 0

### What is (1) AxB (2) CxD (3) AxC (4) DxB (5) BxC

Q256. Consider the collective action model described in Lecture 17.4: Collective Action and Common Pool Resource Problems where $x_j$ is the cost to me to "pitch in" and do my part in some collective effort. Each member of the collective reaps benefits from the contributions of those who decide to pitch in. In particular, they receive some fraction $\beta$ of all the contributions. Their net benefit is thus, this amount minus the effort they contribute. In other words,

(3)
\begin{align} Payoff_j = -x_j + \beta \sum x_i \end{align}

Suppose you are in a class of 21 students and everyone is expected to prepare for class in a manner that costs 1 unit of life. In the class itself, things go much better when people are prepared and we estimate that the benefit a student derives from the class is equal to 0.2 units of life for each person who comes prepared.

(a) What is your net payoff if you do the reading half the class rest of the class comes prepared too?
(b) What is the benefit to a shirker under the same conditions?
(c) How many people do you need to think are going to do the reading to make it worth it to do the reading?

Q348. At 63.2 (in Hechter and Horne reader) Mead says there are two stages in the development of the social self. First the organization of particular attitudes of particular others toward oneself. Second is characterized by "an organization of the social attitudes of the generalized other or the social group…." Although we usually interpret this in terms of the development of a social self in children, we can use it to describe our joining of any new group or social environment. Explain what this means using an example of an individual's socialization into some concrete scene of your own conjuring.

Q99. We want to apply for a home equity line of credit. The bank says it has to know what your house is worth (It has to be worth a certain amount over what we still owe on the mortgage to get a loan at a good rate). A loan at a bad rate will cost $10,000 more than a loan at a good rate. We think there is a 60:40 chance that our house is in fact worth enough to get a good rate. We have a choice between a cheap appraisal ($100) and an expensive appraisal ($1000). A cheap appraisal, we have learned, has a 40% chance of correctly valuing a property. An expensive appraisal is right 70% of the time. Draw a decision tree that will help us figure out what to do. Q11. “Zero tolerance” is a popular cry these days, but does it always make sense? It is certainly a powerful symbolic statement, but it presents problems. Consider the diagram below and discuss the idea of zero tolerance in terms of marginal costs and benefits. Q272. Explain/illustrate what these geoprocessing operations do: clip, intersection, union, difference, buffer, convex hull, symmetric difference. Q140. Identify and fix the main problem in the following passages. In which an actor has the ability to choose his stage and props, as well as the costume he would wear in front of his audience (p.22-24). I believe by using the above example is an illustration of the “front” by describing the clinic as the social setting and the lobby as the stage for the performers. Q28. Consider the three networks in the figure below. For each one, calculate the ratio of actual number of edges to the most maximum number of edges possible (assuming the graphs are simple). Q4.Along with the alternative arrest program, a town is considering a mix of extra community policing, after school programs and evening youth programs as a part of their comprehensive efforts. Proposals are on the table for three interventions, each of which can be implemented at different levels. Costs and benefits have been calculated by our crack accounting team and are shown in table form and chart form. Q132. Create both a causal loop and a stock and flow diagram for a thermostat, heater, and house. The house is a stock of air. When its temperature goes below some threshold, hot air is added. All along though, hot air is subtracted (or cold air is added) through leaky windows and the like. But the temperature does not change immediately upon introduction of the hot air. What are the challenges of modeling this phenomenon discretely and how can we solve them? Q88. Convert the following statement to “pseudo-Excel” formulas (follow the example to see what we mean by that). Example. "If it is Tuesday, this must be Belgium, otherwise it is France" would become something like = if(day="Tuesday","Belgium","France") If the calculated payment (CALC_PMT) is less than the alternative monthly minimum payment (ALT_MIN_PMT) then the payment is the alternative monthly payment otherwise it is the calculated payment. Q37. Centrality Problems Q208. Explicate and comment: One of our main contentions will be that very complex orders, comprising more particular facts than any brain could ascertain or manipulate, can be brought about only through forces inducing the formation of spontaneous orders (Hayek 1976: 143.5). Q358. Demonstrate your understanding of the Ludwik Fleck excerpt and its connection to ideas about how the nature of the social individual is a "source" of social order by explaining this diagram. Use examples to illustrate your ideas. Q346. Cohen and Vandello describe a world that may not be politically or morally attractive to you. And yet we read it in a section of the course where we are saying that collective beliefs can be a source of coordination and social order. How does this article illustrate the theoretical points being made by Marx, Durkheim, Mead, and Fleck, indeed of the entire section of the course, that shared meanings can produce order? Q306. Create custom labels based on two fields for a polygon layer. Q402. Engels suggests that throughout history the state has been "for the ruling class." Identify the three historical periods he talks about and characterize how this plays out in each. Q381. Convert penultimate paragraph of Hechter & Horne's introduction into a table that summarizes the theories in this section. Start with their suggestion that each theory has some group dominating others and each has different process leading to this and different consequences deriving from it. "Each of the readings in this section argues…. from generation to generation." Q353. In "Dissecting the Social," Hedstrom suggests that "a statistical analysis is a test of an explanation, not the explanation itself" (13.9). Explain this distinction. Q389. Explain what Weber means by traditional authority. Q109. Each year the feral cat population grows by 3%. Let Cn be the number of cats n years from now. Assume there are presently 350. Write a difference equation that describes the cat population from year to year. Q408. Show what you know about Willis' lads' world by doing a compare and contrast with a contemporary phenomenon like "gutter punk." Q67. Work through the first half of chapter 7 of the NodeXL book using the senate data. Let's see if we can find some structure within either or both of the parties. The last exercise the text book suggests — changing the edge filtering threshold (basically eliminating edges below some threshold so that we only count it as a similarity edge if, say, two senators vote together 75% of the time) — let's us see some variation. But what if we look only at Republican-Republican edges? =VLOOKUP([@[Vertex 1]],Vertices[[Vertex]:[Party]],28)&"-"&VLOOKUP([@[Vertex 2]],Vertices[[Vertex]:[Party]],28) Q176. Which of the cumulative frequency distributions below corresponds to this frequency distribution  A. B. C. D. E. 21. Coser combines the insight that sometimes deviance is functional (as well as harmful) with the insight that groups don’t always reject rule breakers to form a typology of four social control scenarios. Label the rows and columns of the 2x2 table to the right with the appropriate values.  A B C D 0005.The community is also trying to create a neighborhood resident association. Ten members are recruited each month through posters put up in the community. In addition, each member typically recruits 1 new member every five months (that is, about 0.2 new members per member per month). And finally, attrition seems to run at about 40% per month. • What are the "rates"? What are the "amounts"? • Write the difference equation in general form (Pn+1=aPn + b) • Label the diagram below as fully as you can. • What is the equilibrium value? Is it a stable or unstable equilibrium? How can you tell? • Label this chart as fully as possible and then explain what it shows. Q47. Use NodeXL to visualize the following networks Node List A, B, C, E B, A, C, F C, A, D D, B, E, F E, B, F F, A, D, E Edge List A, B A, C A, E B, A C, A C, B, C, D D, B D, E D, F E, F F, B F, C F, D Full Matrix A B C D E F A - 1 0 0 0 1 B - 0 0 1 1 C - 1 1 1 D - 1 0 E - 0 F - Q10. It is plausible to assume that the higher the ticket for speeding the fewer people will speed (assuming, for the moment, that there is a fixed likelihood of getting caught). Suppose the following curve represents how we expect drivers react (in the aggregate) to the size of speeding tickets. Which point (A, B, C, D) on the graph reflects the fact that some people will take their chances and speed no matter how high the fines are? Which point (A, B, C, D) on the graph reflects the fact that some people will observe the speed limit even if there are no tickets for speeding? A B C D Which has a greater “payoff” in terms of increased compliance: raising the fines from nothing to$25 or raising fines from $125 to$150??

If we think of fines as a sort of utilitarian control, what % of people, according to this model, are "sensitive" or respond to this type of control? 0% 20% 60% 80%

What kind of social control would seem to be at work for the first 20% of the drivers?
 coercive utilitarian normative organizational panopticism

Q145. Wordsmith:

There are different types of secrets, in this situation the secret is a dark secret which has to be kept from the audience forever. “These consist of facts about a team which it knows and conceals and which are incompatible with the image of self that the team attempts to maintain before its audience” (Goffman, 1959, p. 141).

Q117. The Westtown School committee is more generous. It agrees to a 5.5% cost-of-living increase per year, plus a one time only $200 adjustment for past sins of omission. Express this as a difference equation. Q135. Walk us through this diagram Q121. Consider a "leaky" reservoir. Current volume 1,200 million gallons. Inflow 200 million gallons per month. Consumption 150 million gallons per month. Leakage 5% of current volume per month. 1. Draw a stock and flow diagram of the situation. 2. Draw a causal loop diagram showing the relationship between reservoir volume and the net in/out flow. 3. Identify amount(s) and rate(s). 4. Write the difference equation in the form$P_{n+1} = a \times P_n + b$. 5. Calculate the expected equilibrium. 6. Set up Excel model. 7. Chart reservoir volume vs. time. Q334. Describe, with examples, the policy implications of a theory that has individuals and their shared meanings as the main source of social order. Q274. Fill in the names of the "districts" in Oakland. Q209. Explicate and comment. The distinction of this kind of order from one which has been made by somebody putting the elements of a set in their places or directing their movements is indispensable for any understanding of the processes of society as well as for all social policy. There are several terms available for describing each kind of order. The made order which we have already referred to as an exogenous order or an arrangement may again be described as a construction, an artificial order or, especially where we have to deal with a directed social order, as an organization. The grown order, on the other hand, which we have referred to as a self-generating or endogenous order, is in English mosts conveniently described as a spontaneous order (Hayek 1976: 142.1-3). Q129. Draw a stock and flow diagram for filling up a bathtub for a baby (or yourself!). You have a faucet that you can turn more towards hot or toward cold. Be sure to show the flows, the stocks, the sources of information, the "valves," and the rules that govern the valves in this system. Q433. Discuss how one might be "content" with one's inequality in a society where: • status is based on heredity • a program is in place to give everyone an equal start (imagine whatever's needed for this) • a strictly equal opportunity meritocratic society • a society with every imaginable balancing of privilege Q304. Open and explain attribute table. What are rows, what are columns? What do the controls along the bottom do? How do you sort rows? Change column width? Show only selected records? Select one or two rows and then reverse the selection. Q202. (a) Set up the issue of whether to use the metric system or the English system of weights and measures as a coordination game. (b) Identify any equilibria and whether they are efficient or not. (c) If we are in the English/English cell, describe both players' motivations to unilaterally switch to metric. (d) what if we were in the metric/English cell? Q125. Write an equation for the line passing through the points (3,2) and (0,5). Q453. Q337. In "Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact" Ludwik Fleck starts out with the bold statement that "cognition is the most socially-conditioned activity…." Why is this a bold statement? What conventional assumption is he contradicting at the outset? Q338. "As an entity [a thought collective] is even more stable and consistent than the so-called individual, who always consists of contradictory drives" (57.8). Explain what Fleck means. Q339. Ludwik Fleck wrote: "what actually thinks within a person is not the individual himself but his social community" (Hechter & Horne 59.5). Explain wha Q232. Durkheim lived in an age when the role and existence of “god” as ultimate source of right and rule and order was under question. Rather than choose between “the human” and “the divine” Durkheim stared religion in the face, so to speak, and showed how what we think of as divine/sacred is in fact human (social). How do the following passages convey Durkheim’s theory of the special power of social norms and his idea about society as god and the notion that the individual, with norms and values of society internalized, can be a source of social order? Durkheim, “Collective Representations” from Elementary Forms “An individual or collective subject is said to inspire respect when the representation that expresses it in consciousness has such power that it calls forth or inhibits conduct automatically, irrespective of any utilitarian calculation of helpful or harmful results” (50.8). “The ways of acting to which society is strongly enough attached to impose them on its members are for that reason marked with a distinguishing sign that calls forth respect” (51.1). “Because social pressure makes itself felt through mental channels, it was bound to give men the idea that outside him there are one or several powers, moral yet mighty, to which he was subject” (52.1). “In the midst of an assembly that becomes worked up, we become capable of feelings and conduct of which we are incapable when left to our individual resources” (52.5). Q257. (a) Explain the equations for common pool resource problems as discussed in Lecture 17.4: "Collective Action and Common Pool Resource Problems":$x_j$: amount consumed by person j$X$: total consumed Amount available next period:$C_{T+1} = (C_T - X)^2$(b) Propose values of these variables that would result in a steady state equilibrium value of the resource. Q57. Facebook Ego Network with Gephi Q390. Explain what Weber means by charismatic authority. Q206. Suppose the agents in a population have four behaviors - W, X, Y, Z - and that each behavior is either present or absent. Further suppose that there is some pressure toward consistency such that having a "don't do" behavior next to a "do do" behavior is uncomfortable and so agents have some internal urge to change their behavior to be more consistent. Let's say that a behavior that is the only one of its type (a 0 among three 1s, for example) has a 50 percent chance of switching to make the set fully consistent. Each behavior that's one of an even split (e.g., a 0 in a 0011 agent) has a 10% chance of switching. We can put it this way: there is a 10% chance the first behavior changes, 10% the second, etc. and 60% chance no change happens. Use the two random number table below to work out the next state n the grid below, determine the probability of interaction between each pair of neighbors (assume no diagonal interaction for now). For 50% chance use "random number above 50 = change, below 50 = stay." For the 10% chances, 0<10 is change first, 10<20 change 2, etc.  69 72 43 97 87 37 86 35 23 41 88 36 94 60 60 84 26 3 87 12 8 10 56 52 29 26 5 30 15 58 95 3 95 18 69 71 42 55 64 21 68 75 90 19 64 75 13 77 1 89  A 1110 B 1010 C 0010 D 1001 E 0000 F 1111 G 1001 H 1011 17. Coser described several theorists whose work looked at "social control from the inside." What's the "technical term" for "social control from the inside"? Name three of these theorists and provide some identifying information (e.g., "Tongan psychotherapist who wrote in 1920s"). Q463. (1) Write the equation for value, FV, of principal, PV, saved at interest rate R for N years (compounded annually). (2) Suppose you know the future value in problem one and want to determine the present value. Solve the equation you wrote above for PV. (3) Suppose I have a project that will deliver A dollars in one year, B dollars the second year and C dollars in the third year under a prevailing interest/discount rate of R. Write the equation for the present value of this project. Q159. Implement the model from problem 158 using this Excel spreadsheet. Q73. Sketch a flowchart that represents this bit of logic: “if cell E$3 is greater than cell G$12 then value is G$12; otherwise, value is G$12-E$3.”

Q475. This is one of a series of problems (469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 476, 477, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands. Activists in Ourville force the city not to think of this as an either/or proposition. Experts are consulted and the following cost benefit information is obtained. Council allocates$200 for the parks project. How do you recommend they proceed and why? What kind of problem is this? How big should each park be?

Q258. Insofar as particulars matter, what's the difference between cows, lobsters, and whether you live up stream or downstream?

Q162. Explain this passage by Durkheim:

In “The Origin of Beliefs,” Emile Durkheim writes

" Thus it is not the intrinsic nature of the thing who name the clan bore that set it apart as the object of worship. Furthermore, if the emotion elicited by the thing itself really was the determining cause of totemic rites and beliefs, then this thing would also be the sacred being par excellence, and the animals and plants used as totems would play the leading role in religious life. But we know that the focus of the cult is elsewhere. It is symbolic representations of this or that plant or animal. It is totemic emblems and symbols of all kinds that possess the greatest sanctity. And so it is in totemic emblems and symbols that the religious source is to be found, while the real objects, represented by those emblems receive only a reflection” (49).

The totem is above all a symbol, a tangible expression of something else. But of what? (49)

Q55. Consider this adjacency matrix. Following standard conventions, calculate in- and out-degree for each vertex.

 A B C D E A - 0 1 0 1 B 0 - 0 1 1 C 0 1 - 1 1 D 0 0 1 - 0 E 0 1 1 1 -

Q46. Play with Yasiv's Amazon Recommendation Visualizer. After you have played with it for a bit, carry out some specific "analyses" (we use the term loosely here).

Select a book — my example will be The Fountainhead by Ayn Rand, a favorite of libertarians and right wingers. Jostle the network around until you get a nice layout that has settled down. You might want to zoom in or out (mouse wheel if you have one).

Copy screen image to clipboard with alt-F14 or alt-PrtScn, open a Word document and paste. Crop the picture (Picture Tools>Format>Crop), unselect it, reselect it and stretch to fill page.

Examine clusters. Now select the picture and Cut it (control-X) and then Insert>Shapes>New Drawing Canvas, expand the canvas to be page-sized, and paste the picture. Then use the circle tool to draw circles around the identifiable clusters.

Now let's create a new drawing canvas and sketch this network of clusters.

And then we will examine the books qualitatively — back on the web interface — to come up with coarse descriptions of the clusters.

Finally, we inquire as to what connections the inter-cluster edges represent, like this:

And ueber-finally, let's prepare this network for data entry in NodeXL
Vertex1 Vertex2
creativity innovation
innovation Pirsig-education
innovation Rand-novels
Rand-novels Rand-videos-etc
Rand-novels Rand-philosophy

### Enter Data into NodeXL

1. Start on the vertices tab and enter vertex 1 in column A, vertex 2 in column B.
2. Click on refresh graph.
3. Moving nodes and graph.
4. Set layout to none.
5. Vertex labels, vertex size. Refresh.
6. Add edge labels for an edge or two. Refresh.
7. Vertex label position.
8. Copy to clipboard. Paste into writeup document.

#### Suggestions

The hot book in higher education, Academically Adrift.
The Real Mitt Romney]
Steve Jobs' biography
Moneyball by Michael Lewis
Easy Riders, Raging Bulls: How the Sex-Drugs-and-Rock 'N' Roll Generation Saved Hollywood
Caro Emerald's album Scenes from the Cutting Room Floor
Omnivores Dilemma
Fast Food Nation
City: Urbanism and Its End
President Obama's Audacity of Hope
The Art of Computer Programming by Donald Knuth
C Programming
The Future of the Internet and How to Stop It

Q455. Think about the articles by Fehr & Gintis and Centola et al. Show what you take away from these articles by talking about how norms can support cooperation and social order and how they can support an order that might be high on coordination but low on the benefits of cooperation.

Q124. On the grid below …

…draw the line $y=2x + 1$
…shade the area for $x>5$ and the area for $y < 3$
…shade the area for y >= 2x + 1

Q251. Suppose the (time) cost of waiting behind someone with a big shopping cart in the super market checkout line is 10 minutes while the time behind someone with a very few items is 2 minutes. Consider three cities, A, B, and C. Suppose the probability of running into someone again soon in the grocery store is 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 in cities A, B, and C, respectively. What do we predict? Which "path to cooperation" does this illustrate?

Q364. Thinking back to the Kanazawa article on evolutionary biology, use this diagram to talk about at least six different ideas from this course.

Q424. Fill in the blank boxes in this summary diagram for how hierarchy can generate social order. Note that the diagram is purely schematic - you might decide there are more or fewer boxes in different cases or the arrows might not go directly to coordination first, etc.

Q285. Name a few suppliers of map tiles.

Q340. Explain sociological wholism (vs. methodological reductionism) and sociological realism (vs. nominalism)

Q51. To transpose a matrix we simply swap its rows and columns:

 A B C D E F G H I > > > > A D G B E H C F I

or

 A B C D E F > > > > A D B E C F

If the matrix is called $M$ then we write the transpose of M as $tr(M)$.

Transpose these three matrices

 A B C A B C D D E F G 0 1 0 2 1 0 3 1 0 3 0 4 2 1 4 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1

Q243. Consider the following instructions for funding your NGO and then draw a flow chart representing this logic

Write the grant. Find a funder. Submit the grant. Wait to see if it is funded. If it is funded, start the project. Otherwise go back to finding a funder.

Q418. Context and explication, please: "if the future is important, there is no one best strategy."

If the discount parameter, w, is sufficiently high, there is no best strategy independent of the strategy used by the other player.

Q188. "Women's issues" have been talked about a lot in the 2012 presidential campaigns. One issue has been the hiring of women in leadership positions in society. Draw a causal loop diagram to represent the following relationships.

The more "gender bias" the fewer qualified women there will be.
More qualified women means more women in positions of power.
The more women in power, the less "gender bias" in society.

Assuming we start with social bias and not many women in positions of power, how is this system likely to behave?

Now let's modify things a bit. Let's suppose we solve the "supply" problem and break the link between bias and the number of qualified women and that the latter grows significantly. We change our model slightly:

Societal bias produces social blindness to existence of qualified women.
This social blindness means fewer women will be in the pool that is considered for positions of power.
The fewer women in the pool, the fewer end up in positions of power.
And, as before, the more (fewer) women in power, the less (more) "gender bias" in society.

Draw this causal model.

Now let's add another causal relation: the fewer women in positions of power, the more NGOs emerge to promote women's participation in government, etc. The NGOs hit on a strategy called that the men in power call "binders of women" — whereby they do the legwork needed to show the men the qualified women that their bias made them blind to.

Add the NGOs and the binders to our causal model. Identify a balancing loop that might portend the achievement of improved gender diversity in positions of power.

Q139. Wordsmith the following passage from the first paragraph of a paper about Erving Goffman's Presentation of Self in Everyday Life.

In Presentation of Self, Erving Goffman states that a front is "that part of the individual's performance which regularly functions in a general and fixed fashion to define the situation for those who observe the performance" (p.22). In other words, you need to have an image of how you want people to see you at a certain point in time.

Q477. This is one of a series of problems (469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands. Earlier in the process, two options were on the table for the community of Ourville. One proposal was for a pocket park that will cost only$10 and is projected to have $50 benefit — a benefit to cost ratio of 5 to 1. The other proposal is a more elaborate park that will cost$50 and have a benefit of $100 — a benefit to cost ratio of 2 to 1. The town budget could afford either project – either one pocket park or one larger park, but not both. What would you recommend and why? Q277. Explain these acronyms: CSV, UTM, JPEG Q321.: Our consulting firm, NGOsRus, has developed a new organizational assay protocol to help characterize the financial health of community organizations. We have tested the instrument on many organizations whose financial well-being has been determined by other, much more expensive means. Here's what we know: Healthy organizations pass the test 80% of the time but fail it 20% of the time. Unhealthy organizations fail the test 88% of the time but pass 12% of the time. How likely is it that an organization that passes the test is, in fact, in good state financially? Q75. Sketch a flowchart that represents this bit of logic: “If you can get a direct flight for under$1500 take it unless it leaves from SFO before 9 am. Otherwise, see if anything is available on frequent flier miles no matter what the routing. If you can’t find anything, use Expedia to find the cheapest flight out of OAK.”

Q196. Explain this table:

Q451. If the phenomenon described by Centola et al. is common, what are the implications for Schelling's critical mass and tipping models?

Q367. A storyboard is a technique for graphically organizing the telling of a story. Think about how you would explain Weber's typology of social action as it relates to our concerns with the generation of social order. Imagine how you would represent the theory visually and how you would explain it textually.

Q329. Create for yourself a one page cheat-sheet/course summary illustration that captures what you have learned/want to take away from the course. Be prepared to show it at oral exam and explain it to instructor as if he were a fellow student who has not taken this course. This can take any form at all within the constraints of being no more than one sheet of paper. Just for fun, here are some examples from other courses: Social Theory, GIS, Social Control. Focus, of course, on content, not artistic flair.

Q97. There's an idea in philosophy called "Pascal's Wager" that describes a way of thinking about the existence of god. It goes like this. I have a choice to believe or not believe. And there is a chance that god exists and a chance that there is no god. If I believe and there is a god, I have a chance at eternal salvation. If I don't believe but there is a god, I suffer eternal damnation. If I do believe and it turns out there is no god, I will feel a bit of a chump, but the atheists can feel smug if opposite is the case. Sketch this situation as a decision tree. Should you believe in god?

Q242. Draw a flowchart that represents the following protocol for enjoying a Saturday afternoon.

If it is sunny, go to the beach. If it is not sunny go to the movies.
If you go to the beach, if you are by yourself, take an umbrella and a good book. If you are with friends, take a bottle of wine and some nice cheese.
If you go to the movies alone, buy a monster popcorn and sit right up front. If you go with friends, be more restrained with the snacks and sit midway back.
Have a nice dinner afterwards.

Q397. Describe the "resistance culture" of the lads at school.

Q165. What's the difference between an "equation-based model" and an "agent model"? What are some other synonyms we might hear for these terms?

Q294. Identify the counties in this band across northern California

Q178. Which of the cumulative frequency distributions below corresponds to this frequency distribution

 A. B. C. D. E.

Q414. Explain why the study of the "emergence of cooperation" might be especially relevant in international relations. How does this observation suggest a fundamental limit to the Hobbesian model?

Q54. Use the data you generated in Q53 to produce simple visualizations of these networks in NodeXL and import these into a Word document to report your results.

Q204. Suppose the agents in a population have four behaviors - W, X, Y, Z - and that each behavior is either present or absent. When two agents meet they may have all the same behaviors, none of the same behaviors, or 1 or 2 behaviors in common. Suppose the probability of interaction is proportional to their similarity. IF they do interact, they flip a coin and who ever wins gets imitated by the other agent.

In the grid below, determine the probability of interaction between each pair of neighbors (assume no diagonal interaction for now)

 A 1110 B 1010 C 0010 D 1001 E 0000 F 1111 G 1001 H 1011 I 1000 J 1000 K 1110 L 0000 M 0010 N 1100 O 0100 P 0111

Q446. Walk us through Tocqueville's contrast of aristocratic society where citizens are bound to, say, their local noble, and democratic society where citizens are independent. He wants to say that the latter can't get anything done unless they know how to organize and associate.

Q270. Describe and give examples of different types of maps: topographic, thematic, schematic, choropleth, isopleth, political, mental, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), political, physical, topographic, cadastral, climate, road, nautical charts, bathymetric chart, aeronautical chart

Q352. Explain what Hedstrom ("Dissecting the Social") meant when he said "differences in some social states or events are considered explained if the decomposition eliminates them" (13.8)?

Q82. Flow chart the following protocols. (a) Record youth name and address. Check in system to see if already there. If there, pull up record and verify information. If not, create new record and ask for information. When done, send record to orientation staff, give youth a number and instruct to wait until number is called. (b) Once stage three in the treatment regimen is completed, clients are not eligible for the next stage in treatment until they have had three consecutive clean weekly drug tests. If they have one failed test they are given a warning. Two failed tests in a row and they have to meet with a counselor. Three failed tests and they are out of the program.

Q454. Consider the essay you wrote for the warm-up assignment at the start of this course on a film or book in which social order "disappeared." How would you re-write it in a manner that would show off some of what you learned in this course?

Q429. Briefly explain Freud's theory of where guilt comes from.

Q479. Some old cars are being driven by people who take the attitude "if it ain't broke, don't fix it" and "sure, it might not be efficient or clean, but I can't afford to buy a new car." These cars use too much fuel and they pollute the air causing health problems in the population. Assume new cars are zero emission and so create zero health care costs. Each old car, on average, contributes to pollution and health care costs to the tune of $300 per year. We want to run a program to get 100 "junkers" off the road each year for the next three years by offering a$2000 rebate to people who swap a junker for a brand new zero emission vehicle. Working with a ten year time horizon and an initial discount rate of 3.5%, compute the NPV of the project. Then adjust the the subsidy to determine how large a subsidy we can give and still have the project worth doing. Then compute the IRR of the project at both the original amount and this new amount.

Q81. Is a picture worth 548 words? Convert the Rock County, Wisconsin "Drug Court Flow Chart" from text form to diagram form.

1. District Attorney and Defense Attorney present to Judge in assigned Criminal Court a completed Rock County Drug Court Contract and a copy of the defendant’s criminal history (either NCIC Report or CCAP Record of Convictions).
2. Criminal Court Judge determines the defendant may be eligible for Drug Court so the matter is continued for two (2) weeks before the same court. Judge orders defendant to attend an initial screening at the offices of the Rock County Community RECAP Program, 303 W. Court Street, Janesville, WI on the following Tuesday.
3. Court Attendant for the Criminal Court will then immediately photocopy the completed Drug Court Contract, the defendant’s criminal record (either NCIC or CCAP), and the criminal complaint in the present matter and place them in an envelope and put it in the mailbox of the Community RECAP Program that is located in the Courthouse mailroom.
4. The Court Attendant will daily FAX a list of the defendants referred the Community RECAP Program, providing the defendant’s name, date of birth, and case number. This will be FAXed daily to (608)743-1759 to provide that office with a list of the defendants they should expect the following Tuesday for the initial screening.
5. Upon completion of the initial screening the Community RECAP office will FAX to the Criminal Court a document indicating the completion of the initial screening and whether the defendant is qualified for the Drug Court. If the defendant is eligible, the Community RECAP office will provide the defendant with an appointment date (scheduled after his next scheduled return to the Criminal court) for completion of the intake process and to complete a full assessment of the defendants needs. The defendant will also be scheduled with an initial date for first appearance at Drug Court. This information will also be contained in the FAX sent to the Criminal court.
6. After the initial screening, the defendant returns to the Criminal Court. If the Community RECAP FAX (from #5 above) has been received by the court and it indicates that the defendant is eligible for the Drug Court, then the Criminal Court will take the plea to the original charge but will withhold a finding of guilt. The Court will then order the clerk to place the file in status “Deferred Pending”, continue bond and order the defendant to the Drug Court appearance indicated on that FAX.
7. The Court Attendant will then photocopy the following documents, place them in an envelope, and forward them to Judge John Roethe of the Drug Court as these documents will constitute the Drug Court file:
1. Criminal complaint,
2. Completed Drug Court Contract,
3. NCIC or CCAP criminal history of the defendant,
4. Community RECAP Program FAX indicating the completion of the initial screening and initial date for first appearance before the Drug Court.
8. The matter will not return to the Criminal Court until the defendant either successfully completes the program or is removed from the program. If the defendant successfully completed the program the court will implement the agreement outlined in the Drug Court Contract. If for any reason the defendant fails to complete the program the defendant’s original plea will be perfected the entry of a finding of guilt and the matter will proceed to sentencing on the original charge.

Q194. Who wrote about the "invisible hand" and what does it mean for us?

22. What does Donald Black mean by “corporate space”? In what sense is "corporateness" a variable? Give an example of a conflict in which one party has “high” corporateness and the other has “low” corporateness.

Q189. Our campaign wants to hold a giant rally the Sunday before the election. Many voters are fired up, many are tired. Some think we can win, others not so sure. Suppose the ready-to-jump-on-the-bandwagon threshold distribution is shown below. The numbers here mean how many people are willing to come to the rally given different levels of expected participation.

Analyze this information and describe the direction our organizing strategy should go. What should we expect? How much intervention could produce how much of a desired result. Assume that our current research suggests about 40 people are currently planning on going to next week's event.

Threshold Count
0 12
10 3
20 4
30 5
40 6
50 9
60 13
70 17
80 19
90 6
100 0

Q230. A store wants to liquidate 200 of its shirts and 100 pairs of pants from last season. They have decided to put together two offers, A and B. Offer A is a package of one shirt and a pair of pants which will sell for $30. Offer B is a package of three shirts and a pair of pants, which will sell for$50. The store does not want to sell less than 20 packages of Offer A and less than 10 of Offer B. How many packages of each do they have to sell to maximize the money generated from the promotion? (From VITutor)

Q213. Explicate and comment:

What the general argument against 'interference' thus amounts to is that, although we can endeavor to improve a spontaneous order by revising the general rules on which it rests, and can supplement its results by the efforts of various organizations, we cannot improve the results by specific commands that deprive its members of the possibility of using their knowledge for their purposes (Hayek 1976:153.1).

Q287. Download this zip file, open the QGIS workspace inside, produce a map that looks like this:

and post it to a wiki page.

Q468. Describe how to set up the following problem. There are many inefficient and dirty older cars still in use. Future generations are harmed by the wasted fuel and added pollution these cars represent. A proposal is in the works to pay people a bonus to trade them in. How should we think about this? In your preliminary thinking, ignore any economic stimulus effects. You can bring that in later if you wish.

Q341. Explain what George Herbert Mead means when he describes "self consciousness" as becoming aware of oneself as an object for others. How is it that this is what gives rise to the "social self"?

Q444. Tocqueville writes that "Americans combat individualism with free institutions" (246). Explain what he means.

Q118. The Westtown School committee is more generous. It agrees to a 5.5% cost-of-living increase per year, plus a one time only $200 adjustment for past sins of omission. How much would it be worth to teachers if the one time adjustment were made before the first COLA rather than after. Q168. Suppose we have a diffusion process in which susceptibles who are in contact with an infected in a given time period have a 50% chance of becoming infected in the next time period. Now play the “game” again except this time flip a coin each time (or use a random number chart for probabilities other than 50:50) to see whether neighbors become infected or not. Note: You might not want to play all the way out to time period 5! On the grids below color in squares to indicate what happens over the first six time periods beginning with one infected. Then fill in the table and chart the data. Q403. In the excerpt from "The Origin of the State," Engels discusses the role of universal suffrage in the contemporary state. What role does he see the proletariat playing initially in this context? What trajectory does he suggest as the history unfolds? 0006. It's the end of the semester and it's time to optimize. I have a sociology final exam and a public policy final exam on the same day and I can only allocate 16 hours total to exam preparation. I estimate that if I do not study at all, I'll get C- in public policy and a C+ in sociology. But, experience has shown that studying pays off. In sociology, each hour of study raises my grade by 1/3 (0.33) of a letter grade (C- to C, for example). In public policy, the payoffs are not as quick: each 2 hours yields 1/3 of a letter grade (0.167 grade per hour). Thus, 3 hours of sociology study would take me from C+ to B+  C 1 hour > B- 1 hour > B 1 hour > B+ Our plans are subject to a number of constraints: • There is a four hour public policy study session planned with the professor and it would be unwise and impolitic not to attend. Thus, PPOL hours has to be at least 4. • Since the top grade is A, sociology will top out at 5 study hours since these will take me from C+…B-…B…B+…A-…A and in public policy my max is correspondingly 14 with each 2 hours taking me one grade of the seven steps from C- to A. • Total study hours must be 16 or less. • Since I am a public policy major, I feel strongly that I have to study more for PPOL than for SOCIOLOGY I translate these into five inequalities • (Only 16 hours ) PPOL = -SOC + 16 • (More PPOL than SOCIOLOGY) PPOL ≥ SOC • (PPOL Study Group) PPOL ≥ 4 • (SOCIOLOGY max) SOC ≤ 5 • (PPOL max) PPOL ≤ 14 I want to know how to divide my study time so as to maximize my grades. Let's start with a typical Excel layout for a simple LP problem. Identify the lines in this chart, indicate the feasible set, and find the optimal value of the variables and the resulting value of the objective function. Q211. Explicate and comment: To put this differently: in a social order the particular circumstances to which each individual will react will be those known to him. But the individual responses to particular circumstances will result in an overall order only if the individuals obey such rules as will produce and order. Even a very limited similarity in their behavior may be sufficient if the rules which they all obey are such as to produce an order. Such an order will always constitute an adaptation to the multitude of circumstances which are known to all the members of that society taken together but which are not known as a whole to any one person (Hayek 1976: 147.7). Q305. Open properties dialog for a vector layer and explain briefly what the Styles, Labels, Fields, Metadata, and Joins tabs are for. Q181. Which threshold frequency distribution corresponds to the following description: This population is divided between those who are very easily persuaded to participate - they will jump on bandwagon readily - and people who are very reticent to join a movement, with relatively few people in between.  A. B. C. D. E. Q217. Sociologists and anthropologists gripe endlessly about rational actor models, failing, over and over again, to understand that they are MODELS, not descriptions. Explicate and comment on this passage to show that you understand what the value of a model like prisoner's dilemma is for social theory. The Cooperation Theory that is presented…is based upon an investigation of individuals who pursue their own self-interest without the aid of a central authority to force them to cooperate with each other. The reason for assuming self-interest is that it allows an examination of the difficult case in which cooperation is not completely based upon a concern for others or upon the welfare of the group as a whole. It must, however, be stressed that this assumption is actually much less restrictive than it appears. … So the assumption of self interest is really just an assumption that concern for others does not completely solve the problem of when to cooperate with them and when not to (Axelrod 1984: 177.2). Q238. Fehr and Gintis describe experiments using a "public goods game." In the regular game, players tended to free-ride more and more as the game progresses. These results suggest that the sociological idea that people do the right thing because they are socialized to care about others is naive. Most people do not act in a “pro-social” manner. They free-ride. When punishment is permitted, players punish free-riders even at a cost. Public goods increase as free-riding drops. Results like this defy the economic idea of people as selfish maximizers. They also suggest that hierarchy (surveillance/punishment) need not be centralized. In the light of these results and the rest of the course, how do you think individual internalization of social values/norms, hierarchy, decentralized market interaction, and groups combine to create social order? Q437. On p 243 we read "this liberation of desires has been made worse by the very development of industry and the almost infinite extension of the market." Consult the text (including the text before this passage) and say something about what Durkheim's take on globalization of markets and products might be. Q373. Explain what we mean by the phrase "necessary but not sufficient" AND how this applies to the idea that a common language and shared meaning are necessary for social order. Q29. Consider the series below showing the maximum number of edges (m) possible in networks with different numbers of vertices (n). Come up with a general formula for m in terms of n (that is, for a network with n vertices, what is the maximum number of edges — assuming no self-edges and no multi-edges?). Q354. In "Dissecting the Social," what does Hedstrom mean by "realism" (14.9)? How is does this compare to Durkheim's dictum to "treat social facts as things"? Q245. Offer a critique of this flow chart diagram Q318. What does the indicatrix on this Fuller projection or "Dymaxion" map tell you about this projection (which projects the globe onto an icosohedron and then unfolds the solid figure)? Q26. Amir likes Bashir. Chastity is liked by Danica. Chastity likes Ellen. Amir likes Danica and Ellen. Franke likes everyone. Gillian likes Danica. Ellen likes Bashir. Sketch this directed network. Q372. Explain the difference between cooperation and coordination as we are using them in this course. Give examples to support your explanation. Q33. Practice Gephi exercises. Q356. Demonstrate your understanding of the George Herbert Mead excerpt and its connection to ideas about how the nature of the social individual is a "source" of social order by explaining this diagram. Use examples to illustrate your ideas. Q386. "…the state arose from the need to keep class antagonisms in check…." Attribute and explain. Q415. Explain what we mean by "norm of reciprocity" and how it is relevant to the course. Q393. What does Weber mean by "social levelling"? (111) Q445. What is the mechanism behind Tocqueville's endorsement of involvement in local politics as a way of building "the social" into citizens? Q384. Hobbes suggests that in a state of "warre" "there is no place for Industry…no culture…no Navigation…no commodious Building…no Knowledge…." (93.9). Explain how this can be translated as "none of the benefits of cooperation." Q307. Find a color scheme using ColorBrewer and implement it on a polygon layer in QGIS. Q93. A new device at your favorite big box store costs$200. It has a one year guarantee from the manufacturer. The cashier offers you a special deal on a three year replacement warranty (assume it's good, will be honored, etc.) — $40. You estimate that the chances of the device failing during second and third years is 25% and that the price of replacement by then will be$150. Should you buy the service plan? What are the parameters of this decision model?

Q215. Explicate and comment:

The division of labour, from which so many advantages are derived, is not originally the effect of any human wisdom, which foresees and intends that general opulence to which it gives occasion. It is the necessary, though very slow and gradual consequence of a certain propensity in human nature which has in view no such extensive utility; the propensity to truck, barter, and exchange one thing for another (Smith 1776: 171.8).

Q166. Consider a one dimensional cellular automata that looks like this:
 Generation 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Generation 2

Show what the next few generations would look like subject to "rule 93":

0 Rule 93

Q473. This is one of a series of problems (469, 470, 471, 472, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands. Two options are on the table for the community of Ourville. Either option will cost$100. Option A — the West Park – provides $80 of benefits (total) to families who live close to the west park location and$52 (total) to families who live farther away on the east side of town. Option B – the East Park – provides $40 to the first group of families and$110 to the second group. What do you recommend and why?

Q405. Weber says (103.5) that "rule over a considerable number of persons requires a staff…." If you read carefully you will see that the types of "authority" he is talking about refer to the leader's capacity to control and direct the staff as much as to the leader's capacity to dominate "the led." Discuss Weber's types of legitimate domination as forms of maintaining organizational integrity.

Q325. Have a look at the paper shown below about immunization in Uganda. Look especially at the causal loop diagrams on pages 102(146) and 103(147). Explain what is going on in each of the labeled/shaded loops. In some cases, there might be a sign missing. Based on your reading of the diagrams, supply these and explain.

### B2:

Q155. Suppose 25% of the mortgages written in the first years of this century were subprime (meaning the borrowers were not very credit-worthy) and all were 5 year adjustable such that after the fifth year the monthly payments would go way up. In the market in question there is approximately 5% turnover housing each year. The housing stock in the market consists of one million units. Research has shown that 33 1/3% of subprime adjustable mortgages go into default under current conditions when they go past their five year mark (and these conditions are expected to continue for some time) when they adjust.

Q359. Demonstrate your understanding of the Karl Marx excerpt and its connection to ideas about how the nature of the social individual is a "source" of social order by explaining this diagram. Use examples to illustrate your ideas.

Q400. Willis' Learning to Labour is often cited as an example of the social science concept of the "reproduction of social class." Explain what that phrase means to you after reading the excerpt from Willis' book.

Q466. A state agency is considering a childcare subsidy that would facilitate single parents attainment of college degrees. The benefit would cost $10k per recipient per year for four years. The expectation is that individuals with a college degree will earn more than individuals without a college degree. This means that they generate more revenue in the form of income tax. They are also less likely to require government assistance of various kinds — call this amount A. Assume current rules limit us to a ten year time horizon. Assume the average salary difference between non-college grads and college grads is D (but get the real info here) and that the marginal tax rate can be found here. Assume a 5% discount rate. For the purposes of this problem, we will ignore inflation. Q250. What's wrong with this flow chart? How would you fix it? Q225. Your are the supervisor at a new after-school program. The program will serve 100 boys and 100 girls. Activities will include chess, games, and crafts. Materials, supervision, and the like have been priced out at$2/person for chess, $10/person for games, and$5 for crafts. Space needs are such that we can get 8 chess players at a table, 4 games players, or 2 crafters. The center has 50 tables. Solid research has shown that activity preferences among this population of children is somewhat gender specific. Boys and girls like chess the same but games are 70% girls and 30% boys while crafts tend to be 30% girls and 70% boys. What is the most economical division of activities subject to these constraints?

24. Donald Black described 6 styles of social control – penal, conciliatory, therapeutic, compensatory, prevention, and reform. Show that you understand what these are and how they fit into this course by considering the different styles of social control that might be employed in conflicts that could emerge between employee and employer or in the workplace in general..

Q369. A storyboard is a technique for graphically organizing the telling of a story. Think about how you would explain Fleck's theory of thought communities as a theory of how the human individual is a vehicle for the generation of social order. Imagine how you would represent the theory visually and how you would explain it textually.

Q61. Donald Black wrote of two ways that social control can be a variable. Answer three questions about this:

1. In what sense can SC be a variable? What does that mean?
2. What kinds of questions do we ask when we look at social control as an independent variable?
3. What kinds of questions do we ask when we look at social control as a DEPENDENT variable?

Q383. Define the following words/phrases as used by Hobbes

felicity (89.3)
laudable actions (90.5)
redound … to their posterity (90.6)
thraldome (90.7)
hope of requitall (90.8)
secret machination (92.2)
Prudence (92.3)
diffidence (92.6)
cattell (93.5)
dommage (93.5)
Cardinall (94.8)
Jus and Lex (95.7)
Covenants (97.7)

Q406. Attribute and explicate: "…every genuine form of domination implies a minimum of voluntary compliance, that is, an interest in compliance."

Q112. Sketch a causal loop diagram representing this logic:

1. …makes you frown…
2. …which makes people avoid you…
3. …which makes you lonely…
4. …which makes you sad…

Q362. The theorists whose work was included in the section on individuals and social order each suggest mechanisms for how shared meaning happens through actual social interaction. Describe how each thinker is saying that the picture below is NOT how it happens - that is, we don't just magically have a bunch of social/cultural content in our heads; it gets there through a process, there's a mechanism that we can describe.

If it's later in the course, relate this to life in groups - how is this social content connected to ideas on internalization and socialization of group members?

Q45.
Essay Question
The thinkers and theories we have briefly visited have taken a number of basic starting points: people basically good, bad, mixed; people never change; a small defect defines the entire person; biology is destiny. What’s your take on human nature? What kind of a thing is a person for the purposes of thinking about social control? Which readings or thinkers do you feel you line up with? Which ones do you seem to reject?

Q110. Each year the feral cat population grows by 3%. Let Cn be the number of cats n years from now. Assume there are presently 350. Suppose that each year we catch and euthanize or place in homes 20 cats. Write the equations for this situation.

23. Both Donald Black and Robert Ellickson take care to distinguish between first, second, and third party social control. Most of this course has focused on one particular type of third party control – informal control through social norms. Using marriage/married life as an example, briefly demonstrate that you understand that control varies from personal ethics (first party, self control), promisee enforced contracts (second party), and the three types of third party control (organizational rules, law, and social norms) by describing ways each might come up in association with marriage, married relationships, etc..

Q474. This is one of a series of problems (469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 475, 476, 477, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., \$100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands.

The mayor of Ourville wants a more detailed analysis on option A. Apparently, the park could range in size from the very small to the very large. Budget concerns are not an issue for now. Examine the information below. What do you recommend and why? For example: What type of problem is this? What is the fundamental rule? How big should the park be?

Q441. Explain the scientific logic behind Durkheim's suggestion that the three propositions on suicide varying with integration in religious, domestic, and political society lead to the suggestion that social integration is the property behind the variation in suicide rates.

19. Explain what Durkheim meant when he wrote that crime is a normal rather than a pathological condition of a society using, as an example, a political group which very carefully screens members to be sure that they agree with all the attitudes that the group stands for so that the group is quite homogeneous. Would Durkheim expect deviance to arise in this group? How so? What kind?

Q312. Join a csv data file to a vector shape file.

Q449. What does Hechter mean by "the extensiveness of corporate obligations"?

Q290. What kind of map is this and what is it used for?

Q275. What do the four digit numbers on this map of the Laurel District most likely represent?