Q110. Each year the feral cat population grows by 3%. Let Cn be the number of cats n years from now. Assume there are presently 350. Suppose that each year we catch and euthanize or place in homes 20 cats. Write the equations for this situation.

Q66. The chart below could easily figure in an argument that the death penalty does not deter murder. It shows that since 1990 the murder rate per 100,000 population has been higher in states WITH the death penalty than in those without it.

What is an obvious "correlation is not causation" counter-argument?


Q102. Kids these days! Of those who get into trouble, it turns out, about 30% are "real trouble-makers" who need some help. The other 70% are normal adolescents who will age out of their trouble-making under normal care. A social worker friend introduces you to a test that you can give to kids who are referred to you to determine which category they are in. Research has suggested the test is 75% accurate. Use tree flipping to describe what to make of the test's results.

Q156. A state corrections system has established a new drug treatment facility for first offenders. The center has a capacity of 1000.

Inmates may leave the facility in either of two ways. In any period, there is a 10 percent probability that an inmate will be judged rehabilitated, in which case s/he will be released at the beginning of the following period.. There is also a 5 percent chance that an inmate will escape during each period. Rehabilitated addicts have a 20 percent chance of relapsing in each period; escapees have a 10 percent chance of being recaptured each period. Both recidivists and recaptured escapees are returned to the facility and have priority over new offenders.


If it operates at full capacity, how many of the original inmates will be resident at the facility 10 periods later?
How many new offenders can be admitted during each of the next 2 periods?
What happens if we modify the model to allow for a small possibility of death or a change in the probability of relapse?

Q155. Suppose 25% of the mortgages written in the first years of this century were subprime (meaning the borrowers were not very credit-worthy) and all were 5 year adjustable such that after the fifth year the monthly payments would go way up. In the market in question there is approximately 5% turnover housing each year. The housing stock in the market consists of one million units. Research has shown that 33 1/3% of subprime adjustable mortgages go into default under current conditions when they go past their five year mark (and these conditions are expected to continue for some time) when they adjust.

Q227. A gold processor has two sources of gold ore, source A and source B. In order to kep his plant running, at least three tons of ore must be processed each day. Ore from source A costs $20 per ton to process, and ore from source B costs $10 per ton to process. Costs must be kept to less than $80 per day. Moreover, Federal Regulations require that the amount of ore from source B cannot exceed twice the amount of ore from source A. If ore from source A yields 2 oz. of gold per ton, and ore from source B yields 3 oz. of gold per ton, how many tons of ore from both sources must be processed each day to maximize the amount of gold extracted subject to the above constraints? (From Steve Wilson)

Q441. Explain the scientific logic behind Durkheim's suggestion that the three propositions on suicide varying with integration in religious, domestic, and political society lead to the suggestion that social integration is the property behind the variation in suicide rates.

Q159. Implement the model from problem 158 using this Excel spreadsheet.

16. In some countries (and in some parts of this country) bus queues are more orderly and more common than in others. In other words, in some places people actually form a nice neat line starting at the spot where the bus will pull up so that people can board in exactly the order they arrived at the stop. What’s a common phrase for the norm used in such cases? Under what kinds of conditions would you expect strict queuing vs. more nonchalant “standing around”? Can you express the plusses and minuses in terms of deadweight loss and transaction costs?

Q351. Define cooperation and give five examples where you have seen it (or its absence) recently.

Q64. We'll use data on early 20th century Scottish industries to investigate interlocking directorates.

(From Pajek data online) This dataset contains the corporate interlocks in Scotland in the beginning of the twentieth century (1904-5). In the nineteenth century, the industrial revolution brought Scotland railways and industrialization, especially heavy industry and textile industry. The amount of capital needed for these large scale undertakings exceeded the means of private families, so joint stock companies were established, which could raise the required capital. Joint stock companies are owned by the shareholders, who are represented by a board of directors. This opens up the possibility of interlocking directorates. By the end of the nineteenth century, joint stock companies had become the predominant form of business enterprise at the expense of private family businesses. Families, however, still exercised control through ownership and directorships.

The data are taken from the book The Anatomy of Scottish Capital by John Scott and Michael Hughes. It lists the (136) multiple directors of the 108 largest joint stock companies in Scotland in 1904-5: 64 non-financial firms, 8 banks, 14 insurance companies, and 22 investment and property companies (Scotland.net). In this dataset, which was compiled from the Appendix of Scott & Hughes' book, note that two multiple directors (W.S. Fraser and C.D. Menzies) are affiliated with just one board so they are not multiple directors in the strict sense.
The companies are classified according to industry type: 1 - oil & mining, 2 - railway, 3 - engineering & steel, 4 - electricity & chemicals, 5 - domestic products, 6 - banks, 7 - insurance, and 8 - investment. In addition, there is a vector specifying the total capital or deposits of the firms in 1,000 pound sterling.


John Scott & Michael Hughes, The anatomy of Scottish capital: Scottish companies and Scottish capital, 1900-1979 (London: Croom Helm, 1980).
W. de Nooy, A. Mrvar, & V. Batagelj, Exploratory Social Network Analysis with Pajek (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), Chapter 5.


Original authors: are John Paul Scott (1949) (ku.ca.xesse|jttocs#ku.ca.xesse|jttocs, University of Essex) & Michael Hughes (1947, University of Lancaster in 1980, not listed now).
Data compiled into Pajek data files by W. de Nooy, 2001

Use NodeXL to visualize this data. The data is in three network datasets: a bipartite network of people and companies (edges represent a person being a director of a company); a network of people (the edges are co-membership in companies); and a network of companies (edges are sharing a director).

Task 1: Create a preliminary two mode visualization that shows people as small circles and companies as larger squares. Try different layouts (including manually assisted) and produce the best visualization you can (in a reasonable amount of time). Can you color the companies by industry? Are there individuals who appear to be bridges between industries? Or who appear to be kingpins in a particular industry?

Task 2: Do a quick exploration of the people by people network. Try different visualizations. Calculate graph metrics. It might clarify the visualization if you use dynamic filtering to discard barely connected individuals. Change node size by graph metric. Can you identify a class of apparently important people? Try clustering.

Task 3: Now look at company by company network. Cluster, color, explore. How much do network clusters follow industry? Are there cluster bridging companies? Are you surprised at what they are.

Turn in short paper that shows your explorations.

The data is in the following Excel files.

No files attached to this page.

13. Even the worst "deviant" is mostly a conformer. Explain what this means and what it’s relevance is for
a theory of social control.

Q154. Suppose a given housing market has a 10% turnover rate each year. How many houses will typically be in the first, second, third, etc. year of their mortgage at any given time? Assume 10 year mortgages to keep things simple. Draw the diagram that would be the first step in solving this problem.

Q142. Improve this sentence from a paper on Goffman

Many things can create a distraction during a performance, which is an example of maintenance of expressive control.

Q403. In the excerpt from "The Origin of the State," Engels discusses the role of universal suffrage in the contemporary state. What role does he see the proletariat playing initially in this context? What trajectory does he suggest as the history unfolds?

Q479. Some old cars are being driven by people who take the attitude "if it ain't broke, don't fix it" and "sure, it might not be efficient or clean, but I can't afford to buy a new car." These cars use too much fuel and they pollute the air causing health problems in the population. Assume new cars are zero emission and so create zero health care costs. Each old car, on average, contributes to pollution and health care costs to the tune of $300 per year. We want to run a program to get 100 "junkers" off the road each year for the next three years by offering a $2000 rebate to people who swap a junker for a brand new zero emission vehicle. Working with a ten year time horizon and an initial discount rate of 3.5%, compute the NPV of the project. Then adjust the the subsidy to determine how large a subsidy we can give and still have the project worth doing. Then compute the IRR of the project at both the original amount and this new amount.

Q111. Let's say we have a 2 year graduate program. The first year class is growing at a rapid rate 5% per year. Between the first and second years, 25% of the students change their minds or get jobs and leave the program. Among the second years, 10% leave before graduation. The program currently has 20 first year and 12 second year. Write difference equations to describe population in future years.

Q97. There's an idea in philosophy called "Pascal's Wager" that describes a way of thinking about the existence of god. It goes like this. I have a choice to believe or not believe. And there is a chance that god exists and a chance that there is no god. If I believe and there is a god, I have a chance at eternal salvation. If I don't believe but there is a god, I suffer eternal damnation. If I do believe and it turns out there is no god, I will feel a bit of a chump, but the atheists can feel smug if opposite is the case. Sketch this situation as a decision tree. Should you believe in god?

Q87. Sketch a flow chart to represent the following scenario. The Alameda County Waste Management Authority (ACWMA) has decided to spend some money on a public relations campaign to increase the level of composting ("green bin") recylcing. Data on hand says that current levels are 4 kg per household of four per week. The plan is to spend $10,000 on advertising each month until the level has gone over 6 kg per week for four weeks in a row.
Prefatory concern – what does 4 kg / household of 4 / week mean? The amount of compost likely depends on the number of people in a household. We don't want to get the numbers wrong by failing to take this into account. So, in our data collection, we double the number for households of 2, halve it for households of 8, etc. Why not just express it as "kg/person/week"? That would work fine mathematically. Perhaps the PR folks had wanted to focus on households (and families) so as to induce a greater sense of collective responsibility.

Q214. Explicate and comment:

Akerlof generalized this model to a number of markets in which there is unequal information on the two sides - insurance companies know less than you do, usually, about whether you are accident prone, or susceptible to hereditary diseases, or are contemplating suicide. Life insurance rates for sixty-five-year-olds must allow for a large fraction who are not long for this world. And those who know they are healthy and have a family history of longevity and are exposed to few risks have to pay the same premium as the poorer risks; life insurance being unattractive [to them] at that price, few of them buys it. The average life expectancy of the customers goes down, the rates go up further, and the bargain now looks poor even to those of normal life expectancy. And so forth.

…. It is akin to, and sometimes coincides with, those situations in which the below average, or the above average, withdraw or won't join, causing some potential market or institution to unravel. Because people vary and because averages matter, there may be no sustainable critical mass; and the unraveling behavior, or initial failure to get the activity going at all, has much the appearance of a critical mass that is almost but not quite achieved (Schelling 1978: 159.5-7).

Q436. At 242.5 Durkheim writes "Poverty protects against suicide because it is a restraint in itself." What does he mean?

Q3 What is the expected value of a two dice toss if the payoff is whatever comes up on the dice, in dollars? Sketch this as a decision tree with just chance nodes.

Q298. Explain what's going on in this apparently distorted map


Q52. If necessary, review the Wikipedia page "matrix multiplication." Then practice with the following

A =

a b
c d
e f

B =

e f g
h i j

C =

1 1 1 0
0 1 0 1

D =

1 1
1 1
1 0
1 0

What is (1) AxB (2) CxD (3) AxC (4) DxB (5) BxC

Q237. In "The Emperor's Dilemma," Centola, Willer, and Macy talk about “the popular enforcement of unpopular norms.” What does that mean? Why is it a puzzle? What is (are) the mechanism(s) that they think explains it?

Centola, Willer, and Macy “The Emperor's Dilemma"

“Naked emperors are easy to find but hard to explain. It is easy to explain why people comply with unpopular norms—they fear social sanctions. And it is easy to explain why people pressure others to behave the way they want them to behave. But why pressure others to do the opposite? Why would people publicly enforce a norm that they secretly wish would go away? (278)

“One hypothesis is that very few would actually enforce the norm, but no one knows this. If people estimate the willingness to enforce based on the willingness to comply, and they comply based on the false belief that others will enforce, they become trapped in pluralistic ignorance—an equilibrium in which few people would actually enforce the norm but no one realizes this. However, this equilibrium can be extremely fragile. As in the Andersen story [The Emperor’s New Clothes], all that is needed is a single child to laugh at the emperor and the spell will be broken (278).

“A more robust explanation is that most people really will enforce the norm, and for the same reason that they comply—social pressure from others in the group, for whom mere compliance is not enough. To the true believer, it is not sufficient that others go to the right art galleries, display the right body jewelry, purchase the right sports car, or support the right wing. They must do it for the right reason. Zealots believe that it is better not to comply at all than to do so simply to affirm social status (Kuran 1995a, p. 62). Such compliance lasts only so long as behavior can be monitored and social pressure is sufficient to induce acquiescence (Hechter 1987). Thus, true believers reserve special contempt for imposters. Those who comply for the wrong reason must worry about being exposed as counterfeit (278-9).

“The hypothesized anxiety is supported by research on the ‘illusion of transparency’ (Gilovich, Savitsky, and Medvec 1998). This refers to a tendency to overestimate the ability of others to monitor our internal states… (279).

“Applied to the emperor’s dilemma, the ‘illusion of transparency’ suggests that those who admire the emperor out of a desire for social approval fear that their posturing will be apparent to others. They then look for some way to confirm their sincerity. Enforcing the norm provides a low cost way to fake sincerity, to signal that one complies—not as an opportunist seeking approval—but as a true believer” (279).


14. Fill in the focus column of the table below and try to find an example of each in your file. Write a sentence or two explaining how the example illustrates the focus of this style of social control.

Style Focus Example

Q107. Our neighborhood association has a ten member board. Each year it plans to add four members. Write the difference equations that describe the size of the board (S) each year.

Q141. Wordsmith the following

When the performer is playing her role as society expects her to it is called idealization. Goffman’s definition of idealization is “when the individual presents himself towards others, his performance will tend to incorporate and exemplify the officially accredited values of the society, more so in fact, than does his behavior as a whole” (p.35).

Q452. Develop a summary diagram for the entire course. Some examples of the genre from a social control class in solutions.

17. Coser described several theorists whose work looked at "social control from the inside." What's the "technical term" for "social control from the inside"? Name three of these theorists and provide some identifying information (e.g., "Tongan psychotherapist who wrote in 1920s").

Q255. Work through the section on direct reciprocity in Nowak and Sigmund, "How Populations Cohere."

Q308. Take a basic thematic map of Oakland, set up a print composer, and add graticule and customize annotations.

Q461. Consider the task of building a logic model for a setting up an "academic excellence center" on campus. Brainstorm about resources, activities, outputs, and outcomes. For each category, give examples of too much detail, not enough detail, and just the right amount of detail for a straightforward logic model.

Q307. Find a color scheme using ColorBrewer and implement it on a polygon layer in QGIS.

Q132. Create both a causal loop and a stock and flow diagram for a thermostat, heater, and house. The house is a stock of air. When its temperature goes below some threshold, hot air is added. All along though, hot air is subtracted (or cold air is added) through leaky windows and the like. But the temperature does not change immediately upon introduction of the hot air. What are the challenges of modeling this phenomenon discretely and how can we solve them?

Q257. (a) Explain the equations for common pool resource problems as discussed in Lecture 17.4: "Collective Action and Common Pool Resource Problems":

$x_j$ : amount consumed by person j

$X$ : total consumed

Amount available next period: $C_{T+1} = (C_T - X)^2$

(b) Propose values of these variables that would result in a steady state equilibrium value of the resource.



Fehr and Gintis describe experiments using a "public goods game." In the regular game, players tended to free-ride more and more as the game progresses. These results suggest that the sociological idea that people do the right thing because they are socialized to care about others is naive. Most people do not act in a “pro-social” manner. They free-ride.

When punishment is permitted, players punish free-riders even at a cost. Public goods increase as free-riding drops. Results like this defy the economic idea of people as selfish maximizers. They also suggest that hierarchy (surveillance/punishment) need not be centralized.

In the light of these results and the rest of the course, how do you think individual internalization of social values/norms, hierarchy, decentralized market interaction, and groups combine to create social order?

Q365. A storyboard is a technique for graphically organizing the telling of a story. Think about how you would explain Marx's theory of consciousness as a theory of how the human individual is a vehicle for the generation of social order. Imagine how you would represent the theory visually and how you would explain it textually.


Q218. Explicate and comment:

The result was another victory for TIT FOR TAT! The analysis of the data from these tournaments reveals four properties which tend to make a decision rule successful: avoidance of unnecessary conflict by cooperating as long as the other player does, provocability in the face of an uncalled for defection by the other, forgiveness after responding to a provocation, and clarity of behavior so that the other player can adapt to your pattern of action.

These results from the tournaments demonstrate that under suitable conditions, cooperation can indeed emerge in a world of egoists without central authority (Axelrod 1984: 184.5).

Q402. Engels suggests that throughout history the state has been "for the ruling class." Identify the three historical periods he talks about and characterize how this plays out in each.

Q32. In addition to replicating the material in the text, we'll have a "and now try it with this" exercise. Self test at end. Can I : enter vertices and display graph? select an edge ? move the graph plane around? switch graph type between directed and undirected? change data and update graph? move vertices around "manually"? set vertex colors and sizes? use the autofill tool? add vertex labels? add tool tips? save a layout? save a data file?

Q273. What kind of map is this:


Q104. House gets another case. There's this funny rash. We won't say where it appears, but it's a funny rash. In 1% of the cases, it means something really, really bad — anxoreisis. Fortunately, there's a test. Unfortunately, it's not a perfect test. Fortunately, it's a pretty good test. Unfortunately, it is wrong 2% of the time. Work it out.

Q129. Draw a stock and flow diagram for filling up a bathtub for a baby (or yourself!). You have a faucet that you can turn more towards hot or toward cold. Be sure to show the flows, the stocks, the sources of information, the "valves," and the rules that govern the valves in this system.

Q61. Donald Black wrote of two ways that social control can be a variable. Answer three questions about this:

  1. In what sense can SC be a variable? What does that mean?
  2. What kinds of questions do we ask when we look at social control as an independent variable?
  3. What kinds of questions do we ask when we look at social control as a DEPENDENT variable?

Q122. The most basic opportunity cost incurred when undertaking a project is the simple value of investing the money instead of spending it. A first step toward figuring out what that cost is is understanding compound interest. Show what happens to $1000 if the annual interest rate is 5%.

Q414. Explain why the study of the "emergence of cooperation" might be especially relevant in international relations. How does this observation suggest a fundamental limit to the Hobbesian model?

Q241. If my new study method works, I should earn a 98 on the test. If it does not work, I will get a 79. Research suggests that there is a 75% chance it works. What is the expected value of my grade?

A. 87.5 B. 93.25 C. 95.5 D. 79 E. 98

Q105. Following on problem 104, suppose the test is not painless or without its own risks. Suppose the "cost" of the test is 5. And suppose the treatment is also not so nice and the cost of the treatment is 15. But if you have the disease and you are not treated, the results are nasty : 50. Do we have enough information to recommend a course of action? What should we do?

Q424. Fill in the blank boxes in this summary diagram for how hierarchy can generate social order. Note that the diagram is purely schematic - you might decide there are more or fewer boxes in different cases or the arrows might not go directly to coordination first, etc.


Q357. Demonstrate your understanding of the Durkheim excerpt and its connection to ideas about how the nature of the social individual is a "source" of social order by explaining this diagram. Use examples to illustrate your ideas.


Q387. Explain the following words/terms as used in Weber's excerpt on types of legitimate domination:

wertrationale (103.6)
material interests (103.6)
charismatic (104.4)
abstract rules (105.2)
impersonal order (105.3)
rationally delimited jurisdiction (105.5)
[absence of] "appropriation of his official position by the incumbent" (106.4)
office (106.7)
plebiscite (106.9)
administrative staff (107.2)
monocracy (107.4)
"principle of appointment" (108.5)
"red tape" (109.7)
dilettantism (109.8)
levelling (111.4)
sine ira et studio (111.5) - See Wikipedia
formalism (111.8)
utilitarian expediency (112.7)
patrimonial (113.4) - See Wikipedia
prebendal (114.6)
formal system of rules (116.7)
routinization of charisma (118.7)

Q320. Explain this diagram:


Q422. What do we mean saying that Axelrod is trying to discover the conditions in which cooperation can emerge?

Q88. Convert the following statement to “pseudo-Excel” formulas (follow the example to see what we mean by that).
Example. "If it is Tuesday, this must be Belgium, otherwise it is France" would become something like

= if(day="Tuesday","Belgium","France")

If the calculated payment (CALC_PMT) is less than the alternative monthly minimum payment (ALT_MIN_PMT) then the payment is the alternative monthly payment otherwise it is the calculated payment.

Q281. Explain these acronyms: AAG, ABAG, BART

Q38. Homophily Problems

Q292. Name these California counties.


Q375. Hobbes and Engels both give us a vision of the state. Hechter and Horne suggest that "Instead of a world made up of equal individuals, Engels's starting point is a society made up of unequal classes." Show what you know about Hobbes and Engels but explaining this statement.

Q359. Demonstrate your understanding of the Karl Marx excerpt and its connection to ideas about how the nature of the social individual is a "source" of social order by explaining this diagram. Use examples to illustrate your ideas.


Q95. You never know what the weather is going to be around here. Somedays you need a sweater and some days you need sunglasses. The smart person, they say, always brings both. But suppose there is a definite hassle involved in bringing either (e.g., you ride a bike and space is tight). Sketch a decision tree that takes into account a cost to bringing either and a cost to not having either when you need them and the possibility that on a given day you might need one, the other, or both. Use plausible numbers of your own choice.

Q147. Edit these sentences.

Yet, what is unique about the flight attendant’s setting is that it actually follows their performance.

When an individual inhabits the social role of airline attendant, their ability to successfully convey to their audience the validity of their performance also relies the use of a personal front (i.e. the second component of Goffman’s understanding of front).

Additionally, because some flight attendant-to-passenger interactions are not necessarily specific to this relationship (i.e. “hello’s” and “good-byes”), it is necessary for the flight attendant to enhance their communication as to confirm and reaffirm the role (Goffman 30).

Q263. Explain/illustrate the idea of 1+1=3.

Q383. Define the following words/phrases as used by Hobbes

felicity (89.3)
laudable actions (90.5)
redound … to their posterity (90.6)
thraldome (90.7)
hope of requitall (90.8)
secret machination (92.2)
Prudence (92.3)
diffidence (92.6)
cattell (93.5)
dommage (93.5)
Cardinall (94.8)
Jus and Lex (95.7)
Covenants (97.7)

Q464. (a) Suppose a friend makes the following offer: "I am willing to give you $10 right now, 25$ in 3 years or $200 in ten years." Describe the logic you might use to see which of these is the best deal. Calculate the present value of each opportunity and use the results to sketch a simple decision tree. Assume a discount rate of 5%

(b)If you have the choice between paying a cash price right now or spreading the payments out over 12 months with no interest, which would you choose and why?

Q226. "You have $12,000 to invest, and three different funds from which to choose. The municipal bond fund has a 7% return, the local bank's CDs have an 8% return, and the high-risk account has an expected (hoped-for) 12% return. To minimize risk, you decide not to invest any more than $2,000 in the high-risk account. For tax reasons, you need to invest at least three times as much in the municipal bonds as in the bank CDs. Assuming the year-end yields are as expected, what are the optimal investment amounts?" (From PurpleMath.com)

Q411. What is Axelerod's fundamental question in "The Evolution of Cooperation"? It has four parts.

Q106. She may love you or she may not. It turns out there is a 40% chance she does. You decide to use the buttercup test to find out (hold a buttercup under chin and see if it reflects yellow). The test is 90% accurate. Draw tree and flip to determine what conclusions we can draw from positive and negative buttercup test results.

Q260. Explain how "group selection" can give rise to cooperative behavior in human society.

Q76. Sketch a flowchart that represents this bit of logic: If I have anything that is due tomorrow then if I am acing the class already and if I have some money I’ll go out drinking by myself (since all my friends will be busy), but if I don’t have any money I’ll stay home and watch reruns on cable. If, on the other hand, I’m not acing this class, I’ll stay home and study. If I don’t have anything due tomorrow, then if I have some money I’ll see if some friends are around and if so I’ll party with them. Otherwise, I’ll drink alone. If I don’ t have any money I’ll just stay home and watch reruns on cable.

Q251. Suppose the (time) cost of waiting behind someone with a big shopping cart in the super market checkout line is 10 minutes while the time behind someone with a very few items is 2 minutes. Consider three cities, A, B, and C. Suppose the probability of running into someone again soon in the grocery store is 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 in cities A, B, and C, respectively. What do we predict? Which "path to cooperation" does this illustrate?

Q172. Consider this data on the thresholds in a population. Draw a frequency histogram and cumulative frequency diagram. If news reports suggest participation will be at 20 people, how many people's threshold is met or exceeded? How about if the number is 70?


Q412. Explain the basic idea of the prisoner's dilemma.

Q42. Data Collection Problem

  • Seeing two mode networks (when do we encounter these in the reading?)
  • Grab some data from an online source.
  • Use NodeXL to grab some automatically.
  • Class exercise on CSS.

15. Write a few paragraphs (< 400 words) explaining what makes these two situations a pair.

By the late 1630s and 1640s the population of Massachusetts Bay was no longer just the original “true believer” settlers. Some of the disputes that arose at this time were around the question of who is “really” a Puritan, whether people who aren’t “saved” should be voting members and so on.
“Political correctness” became an issue in the 1980s and 1990s ten to twenty years after the major social value shifts which occurred in the late 1960s around issues of race, gender, and politics. People became increasingly concerned about appearing to be on the right side of various debates even when they didn’t wholeheartedly agree with a given position.

Q400. Willis' Learning to Labour is often cited as an example of the social science concept of the "reproduction of social class." Explain what that phrase means to you after reading the excerpt from Willis' book.

Q278. Explain these acronyms: PNG, TIF, geoTIF

Q314. Show how to set snapping options to make vertex matching while drawing polygons by hand easier.

Q146. Tweak:

Although there are many components to his theory of performativity, in this essay I will focus on the use of “fronts” and “dramatic realization” in face-to-face interactions – two concepts from his first chapter (Goffman 22, 30).

Q434. On p241 Durkheim talks about the anomy (disruption) caused by economic disaster (a person losing everything, say, or sudden drop in a set of people's economic circumstances as when a local industry closes and everyone loses jobs) OR when sudden wealth comes (again, to an individual or to a community or group). Explain what Durkheim sees happening and how it's the same process in both situations.

Q270. Describe and give examples of different types of maps: topographic, thematic, schematic, choropleth, isopleth, political, mental, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), political, physical, topographic, cadastral, climate, road, nautical charts, bathymetric chart, aeronautical chart

Q157. Sketch the transition matrix that corresponds to the following diagram


Q474. This is one of a series of problems (469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 475, 476, 477, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands.

The mayor of Ourville wants a more detailed analysis on option A. Apparently, the park could range in size from the very small to the very large. Budget concerns are not an issue for now. Examine the information below. What do you recommend and why? For example: What type of problem is this? What is the fundamental rule? How big should the park be?


Q444. Tocqueville writes that "Americans combat individualism with free institutions" (246). Explain what he means.

Q92. What is wrong with the decision tree here? I need to decide whether to work at home or go down to Stanford today. At home, because of distractions, I work at about 75% efficiency. If I go to my research office at Stanford I work at 100% efficiency. If I work at home I will get 8 hours to work. If I decide to drive down to Stanford, I will get 8 hours minus driving time to work. The normal drive is ^0 minutes each way. But about 20% of the time it is extra light and the round trip takes just 90 minutes. About 30% of the time, though, traffic is awful and round trip is 180 minutes. I made a decision tree to figure out where I should work if I am trying to maximize my output, but I did something wrong. Fix the tree and tell me what I should do.



Q96. A college enrolls two types of students. Full-pay students pay $40K tuition and half-pay students pay $20K. At present the school spends $1 million per year to recruit 200 students about 75% of whom are half-pay and 25% full-pay. A consultant submits a proposal to shift resources around and use GIS to target recruitment at zip codes that are more likely to yield full-pay students. She says there is a 75% chance that the results will be a slightly smaller class (190) but one with 40% full-pay and 60% half-pay. Unfortunately there is also a risk things won't turn out so well. There's a 25% chance that enrollment will drop to 170 and only 30% will be full pay. Use a decision tree to advise the college as to its best course of action.

Q282. Explain these acronyms: USGS, NOAA, NASA

Q274. Fill in the names of the "districts" in Oakland.


Q30. Write out your responses to the following.

  • Lists
  1. Name at least ten areas of human, social, natural phenomena that have been explored by network researchers.
  2. Identify/describe three networks you have encountered this week.
  3. Name at least five academic disciplines in which the study of networks has become a big deal.
  • Meta
  1. Newman, et al. mention "theoretical" work, "empirical" work, and modeling as activities associated with network science. What do you understand by each of these?
  2. Hansen, et al. (and to a lesser extent other authors here) suggest some grandiose assessments of network science's place in the history of science. Newman et al. hint at some tensions between the kind of data social scientists collect and the tools they have for analyzing them and the kind of data used in the "new science of networks" and the tools brought to the task by physicists and computer scientists. Can you zero in on the passages and identify some of the issues?
  3. In sections 1.6-8, Hansen et al. describe applications of social media to public problems, crowdsourcing, and problems of engagement, mentioning, eventually, the term "sociotechnical systems." Meditate a bit on the dual answers this suggests to the question "how can I use my degree in sociology (or whatever your major is)?" — either studying how technology changes the world or being actively involved in designing things that can change the world.
  • Real World
  1. From how many realms do your facebook friends come? Estimate the macro-structure of your facebook network just based on thinking about it. How does it show the different social circles you are a member of? How does it show your different "sides"? How does it show your personal biography? How big do you think the different clusters are? Can you think of people who link the different clusters together?

Q303. Show, in QGIS, how to select features individually and by radius, rectangle, etc.

Q376. In the context of Engels, what is a class? What are the main classes under feudalism? Capitalism?

Q284. What are "map tiles"? Where do we encounter them? How do they work?

Q247. What's wrong with this flow chart? How would you fix it?


19. Explain what Durkheim meant when he wrote that crime is a normal rather than a pathological condition of a society using, as an example, a political group which very carefully screens members to be sure that they agree with all the attitudes that the group stands for so that the group is quite homogeneous. Would Durkheim expect deviance to arise in this group? How so? What kind?

Q373. Explain what we mean by the phrase "necessary but not sufficient" AND how this applies to the idea that a common language and shared meaning are necessary for social order.

Q81. Is a picture worth 548 words? Convert the Rock County, Wisconsin "Drug Court Flow Chart" from text form to diagram form.

  1. District Attorney and Defense Attorney present to Judge in assigned Criminal Court a completed Rock County Drug Court Contract and a copy of the defendant’s criminal history (either NCIC Report or CCAP Record of Convictions).
  2. Criminal Court Judge determines the defendant may be eligible for Drug Court so the matter is continued for two (2) weeks before the same court. Judge orders defendant to attend an initial screening at the offices of the Rock County Community RECAP Program, 303 W. Court Street, Janesville, WI on the following Tuesday.
  3. Court Attendant for the Criminal Court will then immediately photocopy the completed Drug Court Contract, the defendant’s criminal record (either NCIC or CCAP), and the criminal complaint in the present matter and place them in an envelope and put it in the mailbox of the Community RECAP Program that is located in the Courthouse mailroom.
  4. The Court Attendant will daily FAX a list of the defendants referred the Community RECAP Program, providing the defendant’s name, date of birth, and case number. This will be FAXed daily to (608)743-1759 to provide that office with a list of the defendants they should expect the following Tuesday for the initial screening.
  5. Upon completion of the initial screening the Community RECAP office will FAX to the Criminal Court a document indicating the completion of the initial screening and whether the defendant is qualified for the Drug Court. If the defendant is eligible, the Community RECAP office will provide the defendant with an appointment date (scheduled after his next scheduled return to the Criminal court) for completion of the intake process and to complete a full assessment of the defendants needs. The defendant will also be scheduled with an initial date for first appearance at Drug Court. This information will also be contained in the FAX sent to the Criminal court.
  6. After the initial screening, the defendant returns to the Criminal Court. If the Community RECAP FAX (from #5 above) has been received by the court and it indicates that the defendant is eligible for the Drug Court, then the Criminal Court will take the plea to the original charge but will withhold a finding of guilt. The Court will then order the clerk to place the file in status “Deferred Pending”, continue bond and order the defendant to the Drug Court appearance indicated on that FAX.
  7. The Court Attendant will then photocopy the following documents, place them in an envelope, and forward them to Judge John Roethe of the Drug Court as these documents will constitute the Drug Court file:
    1. Criminal complaint,
    2. Completed Drug Court Contract,
    3. NCIC or CCAP criminal history of the defendant,
    4. Community RECAP Program FAX indicating the completion of the initial screening and initial date for first appearance before the Drug Court.
  8. The matter will not return to the Criminal Court until the defendant either successfully completes the program or is removed from the program. If the defendant successfully completed the program the court will implement the agreement outlined in the Drug Court Contract. If for any reason the defendant fails to complete the program the defendant’s original plea will be perfected the entry of a finding of guilt and the matter will proceed to sentencing on the original charge.

Q477. This is one of a series of problems (469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands.

Earlier in the process, two options were on the table for the community of Ourville. One proposal was for a pocket park that will cost only $10 and is projected to have $50 benefit — a benefit to cost ratio of 5 to 1. The other proposal is a more elaborate park that will cost $50 and have a benefit of $100 — a benefit to cost ratio of 2 to 1. The town budget could afford either project – either one pocket park or one larger park, but not both. What would you recommend and why?

Q272. Explain/illustrate what these geoprocessing operations do: clip, intersection, union, difference, buffer, convex hull, symmetric difference.

Q223. A non-profit supplier of after-school materials has orders for 600 copies from San Francisco and 400 copies from Sacramento. The organization has 700 copies in a warehouse in Novato and 800 copies in a warehouse in Lodi. It costs $5 to ship a text from Novato to San Francisco, but it costs $10 to ship it to Sacramento. It costs $15 to ship from Lodi to San Francisco, but it costs $4 to ship it from Lodi to Sacramento. How many copies should the organization ship from each warehouse to San Francisco and Sacramento to fill the order at the least cost? [http://www.sonoma.edu/users/w/wilsonst/Courses/Math_131/lp/default.html]

Q416. Explain what we mean by distinguishing a one-shot PD from an iterated PD and why this is important.

Q236. In a prisoner’s dilemma game, the rational thing for both players is to defect. This makes mutual defection an equilibrium, though it is not a preferred one (the collective would be better off with another outcome). In other words, in a single game of prisoner’s dilemma, cooperation is “impossible.” But cooperation does happen in the world.

Demonstrate your understanding of Axelrod's ideas by describing the mechanism and conditions under which this can happen without assuming anything “social” about the agents.


Explain how this works and how it adds to or modifies Smith’s and Hayek’s story about how markets can be a source of social order.

Q430. At 239.4 Durkheim writes, "As a matter of fact, at every moment of history there is a dim perception, in the moral consciousness of societies, of the respective value of different social services [he means jobs, occupations, etc. not social work], the relative reward due to each, and the consequent degree of comfort appropriate on the average to workers in each occupation." Translate this into everyday English.

Q318. What does the indicatrix on this Fuller projection or "Dymaxion" map tell you about this projection (which projects the globe onto an icosohedron and then unfolds the solid figure)?


Q374. "Social order triumphs over the state of nature by coercion…." Attribute and explain.

Q136. Write out the difference equation that represents the following scenario and the first five terms of the corresponding sequence given the stated starting value.

  1. Membership in a club goes up by 4 people each year. At year one it has 21 members.
  2. A community's population increases by 4% each year. At year one it is 350.
  3. A swimming pool, currently containing 100,000 gallons of water, is leaking at the rate of 2% per day but is being filled at the rate of 1,000 gallons per day.
  4. A retirement account which stands at $120,000 earns 3% interest annually. The owner needs to withdraw $1500 per month to pay for eldercare.

For each of these, graph Pn vs. time.

For each of these, graph Pn+1 vs. Pn

Q435. Discuss: Durkheim talks about how society gets us to "accept our lot"; Marx and Engels talk about false consciousness and ideology (we buy into our oppression) and religion as "opiate of the masses"; Weber gave us the notion of legitimate authority. Points of similarity and difference?

Q82. Flow chart the following protocols. (a) Record youth name and address. Check in system to see if already there. If there, pull up record and verify information. If not, create new record and ask for information. When done, send record to orientation staff, give youth a number and instruct to wait until number is called. (b) Once stage three in the treatment regimen is completed, clients are not eligible for the next stage in treatment until they have had three consecutive clean weekly drug tests. If they have one failed test they are given a warning. Two failed tests in a row and they have to meet with a counselor. Three failed tests and they are out of the program.

Q29. Consider the series below showing the maximum number of edges (m) possible in networks with different numbers of vertices (n). Come up with a general formula for m in terms of n (that is, for a network with n vertices, what is the maximum number of edges — assuming no self-edges and no multi-edges?).


Q398. According to Willis, what is the "main theme of shopfloor culture"? Explain and give examples.

Q75. Sketch a flowchart that represents this bit of logic: “If you can get a direct flight for under $1500 take it unless it leaves from SFO before 9 am. Otherwise, see if anything is available on frequent flier miles no matter what the routing. If you can’t find anything, use Expedia to find the cheapest flight out of OAK.”

Q133. College is a more or less four year endeavor but students come and go on different schedules. Sketch a stock and flow model that shows freshwomen applicants coming from the cloud, admitted students from applicants, and freshwomen from the admittees. Then freshwomen become sophomores, mostly, but there is some attrition. And so on through the other years. Sketch a stock and flow diagram that follows students through four years and think up some variables that might affect the flows between the different years. For this problem, you should try wearing the hat of an academic administrator who is interested in the problems of "retention" and "degree completion."

Q290. What kind of map is this and what is it used for?

Q258. Insofar as particulars matter, what's the difference between cows, lobsters, and whether you live up stream or downstream?

Q245. Offer a critique of this flow chart diagram


Q229. Bob builds tool sheds. He uses 10 sheets of dry wall and 15 studs for a small shed and 15 sheets of dry wall and 45 studs for a large shed. He has available 60 sheets of dry wall and 135 studs. If Bob makes $390 profit on a small shed and $520 on a large shed, how many of each type of building should Bob build to maximize his profit? (From solution here)

Q408. Show what you know about Willis' lads' world by doing a compare and contrast with a contemporary phenomenon like "gutter punk."

Q225. Your are the supervisor at a new after-school program. The program will serve 100 boys and 100 girls. Activities will include chess, games, and crafts. Materials, supervision, and the like have been priced out at $2/person for chess, $10/person for games, and $5 for crafts. Space needs are such that we can get 8 chess players at a table, 4 games players, or 2 crafters. The center has 50 tables. Solid research has shown that activity preferences among this population of children is somewhat gender specific. Boys and girls like chess the same but games are 70% girls and 30% boys while crafts tend to be 30% girls and 70% boys. What is the most economical division of activities subject to these constraints?

Q322. Say what's wrong with these flow charts and redraw them correctly.

flowchart-bad-01a.png flowchart-bad-02a.png flowchart-bad-03a.png

Q253. Consider this network in which green agents are cooperators and violet are defectors and the cost of cooperating is 2 while the benefit of being cooperated with is 5. Where is the equilibrium is people's behavior changes based on their network experiences?


Q352. Explain what Hedstrom ("Dissecting the Social") meant when he said "differences in some social states or events are considered explained if the decomposition eliminates them" (13.8)?

Q67. Work through the first half of chapter 7 of the NodeXL book using the senate data.

Let's see if we can find some structure within either or both of the parties. The last exercise the text book suggests — changing the edge filtering threshold (basically eliminating edges below some threshold so that we only count it as a similarity edge if, say, two senators vote together 75% of the time) — let's us see some variation.

But what if we look only at Republican-Republican edges?

=VLOOKUP([@[Vertex 1]],Vertices[[Vertex]:[Party]],28)&"-"&VLOOKUP([@[Vertex 2]],Vertices[[Vertex]:[Party]],28)

Q224. You are working for an agricultural cooperative which is helping local farmers figure out how to optimize the mixture of crops they plant. A typical farmer has 10 acres to plant in wheat and rye. She has to plant at least 7 acres. However, she has only the equivalent of $1200 to spend and each acre of wheat costs $200 to plant and each acre of rye costs $100 to plant. Moreover, the farmer has to get the planting done in 12 hours and it takes an hour to plant an acre of wheat and 2 hours to plant an acre of rye. If the expected profit is $500 per acre of wheat and $300 per acre of rye how many acres of each should be planted to maximize profits? (From Steve Wilson)

Q389. Explain what Weber means by traditional authority.

Q466. A state agency is considering a childcare subsidy that would facilitate single parents attainment of college degrees. The benefit would cost $10k per recipient per year for four years. The expectation is that individuals with a college degree will earn more than individuals without a college degree. This means that they generate more revenue in the form of income tax. They are also less likely to require government assistance of various kinds — call this amount A. Assume current rules limit us to a ten year time horizon. Assume the average salary difference between non-college grads and college grads is D (but get the real info here) and that the marginal tax rate can be found here. Assume a 5% discount rate. For the purposes of this problem, we will ignore inflation.

Q174. Consider this data on the thresholds in a population. Draw a frequency histogram and cumulative frequency diagram. How does this system behave when the expected number is 10? 20? 50? 60? 90?


Q1 In connection with a program that provides alternatives for youth who have a run in with the criminal justice system, a colleague mentions that the program could be more effective if there were an easy way to predict who might benefit from the alternative program. The data suggests that about 75% of the youth in Ourtown are "good kids" who would benefit from the alternative program and 25% are "bad kids" who will not. Your supervisor also says you should come up with some more acceptable terms than "good" and "bad."

It turns out that when a kid is, in fact, "bad," the test gets it right 90% of the time, wrong 10%. But when the kid is, in fact, "good," the test says "bad" 30% of the time.12. Sketch an event tree that captures this and then flip the tree to evaluate the test and provide guidance on how to interpret its results.

Q288. How would you estimate the number of people who live within 500 meters of MacArthur Blvd in Oakland?

Q169. Consider the 12 block neighborhood bounded by parks on the north and south and major thoroughfares on the east and west. Green houses are supporting Obama, purple houses Romney.


Using the facing blocks delineated by the red dashed lines as units (it yields 15 of them), calculate the index of dissimilarity.

Q59. Consider the following things1 that can flow or move on a network:

Used books
Taught knowledge
Mooching friends/relatives
Workers (flowing among jobs)
Help/favors/acts of kindness

Categorize these in terms of four characteristics:

  1. The mechanics of diffusion: does diffusion occur via replication (copy mechanism) or transfer (move mechanism)?
  2. (applicable only to replication-based flows) Is the duplication is one at a time (serial), like giving a paperback to a friend, or simultaneous (parallel), like a radio broadcast.
  3. Does the traffic flow deliberately or blindly/randomly?
  4. Does the traffic revisit places it's already been? That is, is the flow on paths (no node repeats), trails (no edge repeats), or walks (visiting nodes and edges perhaps repeatedly).

Q47. Use NodeXL to visualize the following networks

Node List
A, B, C, E
B, A, C, F
C, A, D
D, B, E, F
E, B, F
F, A, D, E

Edge List

A, B
A, C
A, E
B, A
C, A
C, B,
C, D
D, B
D, E
D, F
E, F
F, B
F, C
F, D

Full Matrix

A - 1 0 0 0 1
B - 0 0 1 1
C - 1 1 1
D - 1 0
E - 0
F -

Q445. What is the mechanism behind Tocqueville's endorsement of involvement in local politics as a way of building "the social" into citizens?

Q327. Our agency provides three types of client service: A, B, and C. And we have 3 kinds of staff: X, Y, and Z.

Each type A service requires 3 hours of an X staff member's time and 1 hour of a Y. Type B requires 2 X, 1 Y, and 3 Z hours. And type C requires 1 X, 3 Y, and 2 Z.

Currently we have 2 X, 1 Y and 1 Z on staff. We pay X's $25 per hour, Ys get $30 and Zs get $40. Assume everyone works a 35 hour week. At 35 hours per week our labor costs are 4200.

Revenue from type A service is $100, B is $200, and C is $300.

Regulations require that we serve at least 5 of each client type each week and that we serve at total of at least 21 clients each week.

What client mix will allow us to maximize revenue?

Excel Worksheet here.

Q426. Weber's definition, please:

traditional authority
rational legal authority
charismatic authority

Q358. Demonstrate your understanding of the Ludwik Fleck excerpt and its connection to ideas about how the nature of the social individual is a "source" of social order by explaining this diagram. Use examples to illustrate your ideas.


Q124. On the grid below …

…draw the line $y=2x + 1$
…shade the area for $x>5$ and the area for $y < 3$
…shade the area for y >= 2x + 1


Q89. Convert the following statement to “pseudo-Excel” formulas (follow the example to see what we mean by that).
Example. "If it is Tuesday, this must be Belgium, otherwise it is France" would become something like

= if(day="Tuesday","Belgium","France")

If the current balance (BAL) is less than the calculated payment then pay the balance off, otherwise, pay the calculated payment.

Q11. “Zero tolerance” is a popular cry these days, but does it always make sense? It is certainly a powerful symbolic statement, but it presents problems. Consider the diagram below and discuss the idea of zero tolerance in terms of marginal costs and benefits.


Q394. What does Weber mean by "the routinization of charisma"? (118ff)

Q71. Consider this little bit of logic that describes a tourist's thinking process (taken from the title of a 1970s movie): “if it’s Tuesday, this must be Belgium. Otherwise, I have no idea where we are.” Sketch a flowchart that represents this flow of thought.

Q40. Structural equivalence problems

Q329. Create for yourself a one page cheat-sheet/course summary illustration that captures what you have learned/want to take away from the course. Be prepared to show it at oral exam and explain it to instructor as if he were a fellow student who has not taken this course. This can take any form at all within the constraints of being no more than one sheet of paper. Just for fun, here are some examples from other courses: Social Theory, GIS, Social Control. Focus, of course, on content, not artistic flair.

Q364. Thinking back to the Kanazawa article on evolutionary biology, use this diagram to talk about at least six different ideas from this course.


Q397. Describe the "resistance culture" of the lads at school.

Q336. What does Ludwick Fleck mean by a "thought collective"?

Q73. Sketch a flowchart that represents this bit of logic: “if cell E$3 is greater than cell G$12 then value is G$12; otherwise, value is G$12-E$3.”

Q323. What flow chart concept does this diagram illustrate? Explain what it means and how we use it. Draw the series of flow charts implied by this diagram.


Q170. Suppose you have a population of one hundred persons. It is divided into five categories of willingness to join a protest all of which depend on people's expectations of how many others will appear at the protest. The thresholds range from very low (I'll go if anyone else is going) to the very high (I won't go unless basically everybody else is going).

Assume the population is divided among these categories as follows:

Challenge of Recruiting Very Easy Easy Average Hard Very Hard
Participation Threshold 1 10 40 60 99
Number at this threshold 10 20 40 20 10

a. If news reports suggest that 15 people will show up, how many actually will?

b. If last week saw participation of 41 and this is widely reported so that everyone knows, how many will come out this week? And then next week? And after that?

c. What if 91 came last week?

Q264. What is a datum?

Q366. A storyboard is a technique for graphically organizing the telling of a story. Think about how you would explain Mead's theory of the social self as a theory of how the human individual is a vehicle for the generation of social order. Imagine how you would represent the theory visually and how you would explain it textually.


Q163. Work through this passage by Durkheim:

…it is with the people of his clan that he has most in common, and it is the influence of this group that he feels most immediately, and so it is also this influence, more than any other, that was bound to find expression in religious symbols” (55).

Can you make any connections to Mead's generalized other? Or the generic idea of having some of our mental content being social?

Q26. Amir likes Bashir. Chastity is liked by Danica. Chastity likes Ellen. Amir likes Danica and Ellen. Franke likes everyone. Gillian likes Danica. Ellen likes Bashir. Sketch this directed network.

Q333. Consider each of the actions listed in the left column of this table. Thinking like Max Weber, in the other columns of each row, give a short explanation of how the action could be oriented in each of four ways (instrumentally rational, value rational, affectual, traditional). In some cases, you might conclude that it is simply too far fetched for an action to be subject to a particular orientation; these can be noted with an "X."

Action Instrumentally Rational
Value Rational
Affectual Traditional
Picking a major
Helping an elderly person
Clipping coupons
Setting the table
Observing holy days
Doing a class assignment
Going to college
Respecting one's elders

Q460. Modify this as you like so it refers to a trip project you might plan with family or friends.

We are proposing an inexpensive family trip from Charleston, South Carolina, to Des Moines, Iowa, to visit relatives during December school holidays. The seasonal trip we dream of taking from Charleston to Des Moines is the “program.” Basic assumptions about our trip “program” are:

  • We want to visit relatives between 12/10/00 and 1/5/01 while the children are out of school.
  • We will fly from South Carolina to Iowa because it takes less time than driving and because frequent flier (FF) miles are available.
  • Using frequent flier miles will reduce travel costs.

We have to determine the factors influencing our trip, including necessary resources, such as, the number of family members, scheduled vacation time, the number of frequent flier miles we have, round trip air reservations for each family member, and transportation to and from our home to the airport. The activities necessary to make this happen are the creation of our own family holiday schedule, securing our Iowa relative’s schedule, garnering air line information and reservations and planning for transportation to and from the airport.

Q210. Explicate and comment:

This means that, though the use of spontaneous ordering forces enables us to induce the formation of an order of such a degree of complexity (namely comprising elements of such numbers, diversity and variety of conditions) as we could never master intellectually, or deliberately arrange, we will have less power over the details of such an order than we would of one which we produce by arrangement. In the case of spontaneous orders we may, by determining some of the factors which shape them, determine their abstract features, but we will have to leave the particulars to circumstances which we do not know. Thus, by relying on the spontaneously ordering forces, we can extend the scope or range of the order which we may induce to form, precisely because its particular manifestation will depend on many more circumstances than can be known to us-and in the case of a social order, because such an order will utilize the separate knowledge of all its several members, without this knowledge ever being concentrated in a single mind, or being subject to those processes of deliberate coordination and adaptation which a mind performs (Hayek 1976: 145.5-7).

Q65. Consider the document, "Plagiarism: Deterrence, Detection and Prevention" (a teaching manual for economics and business) by Jeremy B. Williams as an artifact. How would you classify the strategies for plagiarism prevention that it describes?

Q297. With reference to the figures below, describe what the California State Plane System is.


Q126. Why do people scream into cell phones? Answer in terms of feedback.

20. Explain what is meant by "social control as a dependent variable."

Q309. Demonstrate that you know you way around the Print Composer.

Q451. If the phenomenon described by Centola et al. is common, what are the implications for Schelling's critical mass and tipping models?

Q221. For each of the problems described below, say whether it is best thought of as an analog to diet, transport, activity, or assignment as outlined above.

  3. S&Z problem #3 Hospitals and disasters DIET TRANSPORT ACTIVITY ASSIGNMENT
  4. S&Z problem #4 Electricity generation and pollution DIET TRANSPORT ACTIVITY ASSIGNMENT
  5. S&Z text example – transit maintenance DIET TRANSPORT ACTIVITY ASSIGNMENT

Q465. A used car costs 10,000. A comparable new car costs 20,000. Owners of new cars can expect to pay nothing per year in maintenance for ten years. Owners of used cars pay $1000 per year in maintenance. How do the costs compare over ten years? Assume a 7% discount rate.

Q391. Weber describes "monocratic bureaucracy" as an ideal type. What is an ideal type? Describe the five characteristics of an ideal typical bureaucracy.

Q423. The article "From Ants to People, An Instinct to Swarm" suggests that humans might not (yet) be like ants because we have not had enough time to adapt to living in groups (195.5). What does this mean? Demonstrate what you learned from this article (and from this section of the course) by talking about how humans are and are not like ants and what might be involved in an evolution toward being more like ants.

Q415. Explain what we mean by "norm of reciprocity" and how it is relevant to the course.

Q179. Which of the cumulative frequency distributions below corresponds to this frequency distribution

A. cumfreq01.gif B. cumfreq02.gif C. cumfreq03.gif
D. cumfreq04.gif E. cumfreq05.gif

Q35. A researcher asks a respondent, Maria, to list her six closest friends. She says A, B, C, D, E, and F. The researcher then asks which of these friends have you had dinner with in the last week? A, C, D. Which ones have you texted today? A, B, D, F. Which ones did you know before you came to this school? C, D. On whose wall have you posted in the last week? D, E, F.

Show how this information would be recorded in your field notes.

Q355. Explain what Marx means by "It is not consciousness that determines life, but life that determines consciousness" (47.7).

Q103. Suppose we are running a program to which we want to accept only individuals in the top 25% of the population (on some measurable trait). Unfortunately, our test for measuring the trait is only 80% accurate. Draw event tree and flip to show what kind of faith we can have in the test results. Which test result appears more worthy of taking at face value? Which group would you be inclined to develop a second test for?

0006. It's the end of the semester and it's time to optimize. I have a sociology final exam and a public policy final exam on the same day and I can only allocate 16 hours total to exam preparation.
I estimate that if I do not study at all, I'll get C- in public policy and a C+ in sociology. But, experience has shown that studying pays off. In sociology, each hour of study raises my grade by 1/3 (0.33) of a letter grade (C- to C, for example). In public policy, the payoffs are not as quick: each 2 hours yields 1/3 of a letter grade (0.167 grade per hour).
Thus, 3 hours of sociology study would take me from C+ to B+
C 1 hour > B- 1 hour > B 1 hour > B+

Our plans are subject to a number of constraints:

  • There is a four hour public policy study session planned with the professor and it would be unwise and impolitic not to attend. Thus, PPOL hours has to be at least 4.
  • Since the top grade is A, sociology will top out at 5 study hours since these will take me from C+…B-…B…B+…A-…A and in public policy my max is correspondingly 14 with each 2 hours taking me one grade of the seven steps from C- to A.
  • Total study hours must be 16 or less.
  • Since I am a public policy major, I feel strongly that I have to study more for PPOL than for SOCIOLOGY

I translate these into five inequalities

  • (Only 16 hours ) PPOL = -SOC + 16
  • (PPOL Study Group) PPOL ≥ 4
  • (SOCIOLOGY max) SOC ≤ 5
  • (PPOL max) PPOL ≤ 14

I want to know how to divide my study time so as to maximize my grades. Let's start with a typical Excel layout for a simple LP problem.


Identify the lines in this chart, indicate the feasible set, and find the optimal value of the variables and the resulting value of the objective function.

Q332. Your client asks you to design a simple research project that will tell us how long a tube of toothpaste should last. It turns out there is a standard amount of toothpaste that is considered "one use" but that real people are all over the map in terms of the amount they use. We need the answer by the end of the week.

Q207. Convert the following logic into a set of step-by-step instructions in a manner that uses stepwise refinement.

To execute coordination we proceed as follows. Each agent will consider in turn its north, east, south, and west neighbors. First the agent determines whether interaction will take place at all based on similarity. Then, if they do interact, they flip a coin to decide who is the leader and who is the follower. Then the follower copies the traits of the leader. And then onto the next neighbor if there is one.

We can incorporate the following design decisions into our model: (1) neighbors who have already interacted in a given round do not do so again; (2) an agent can change multiple times during a given round; (3) all interactions are with the agent's current state.

Q171. A common phrase to describe processes in which people engage in imitative behavior is "bandwagon effect." Explain the appropriateness of this metaphor.

Q395. Explain the following terms or phrases in the context of Paul Willis' Learning to Labour.

"an aimless air of insubordination" (124.4)
'ear'oles (124.9)
"universal taboo…yielding incriminating information…to those with formal power" (129.3)
"grassing" (129.4)

Q109. Each year the feral cat population grows by 3%. Let Cn be the number of cats n years from now. Assume there are presently 350. Write a difference equation that describes the cat population from year to year.

Q79. Use stepwise refinement to create a flow chart for this set of instructions: Do A and then B. If C, then while E do F and after that do G, otherwise do H. Do I.

Q347. George Herbert Mead writes of "taking the attitude of the other" as a necessary part of social life.

"…the complex co-operative processes … organized human society are also possible only in so far as every individual involved in them … can take the general attitudes of all other such individuals … and can direct his own behavior accordingly" (61.5).

Give an example of a social situation that bears this out, describing the various participants and how they can "take the attitude of the others" and what would happen if they got it wrong, or in situations where people do this less well or less completely.

Q220. What is the objective function in each of the following situations?

  1. What is the largest volume box I can make by folding a piece of cardboard that is A inches by B inches?
  2. Pancakes cost $1 each, eggs are 1.50, and blintzes are 2. Pancakes have 200 calories, eggs 125 and blintzes 450. What combination gives me the most calories for 5 dollars?
  3. What's the cheapest 1000 calorie daily diet?
  4. I have information on the level of AOD demand reduction we can expect from public awareness campaigns, DARE visits to public schools, increased treatment slots, and increases in after care. I know the cost of each type program and I have a limited budget. What mix of programs should I institute to have the biggest effect on demand?

Q410. Show what you know about Schelling's "micromotives macrobehavior" models by explaining this diagram.


Q362. The theorists whose work was included in the section on individuals and social order each suggest mechanisms for how shared meaning happens through actual social interaction. Describe how each thinker is saying that the picture below is NOT how it happens - that is, we don't just magically have a bunch of social/cultural content in our heads; it gets there through a process, there's a mechanism that we can describe.

If it's later in the course, relate this to life in groups - how is this social content connected to ideas on internalization and socialization of group members?


Q168. Suppose we have a diffusion process in which susceptibles who are in contact with an infected in a given time period have a 50% chance of becoming infected in the next time period. Now play the “game” again except this time flip a coin each time (or use a random number chart for probabilities other than 50:50) to see whether neighbors become infected or not. Note: You might not want to play all the way out to time period 5! On the grids below color in squares to indicate what happens over the first six time periods beginning with one infected. Then fill in the table and chart the data.


Q289. What map is this and what is it "famous" for?


Q144. Wordsmith this passage

In the second chapter of his book Goffman elaborates on the concept of teams. He refers to “team performance” as “teams” and it is “to refer to any set of individuals who co-operate in staging a single routine” (Goffman, 1959, 79). In other words Goffman’s concept of a team is a group of people that are adhering and working towards the same goal.

Q467. (a) Provide an example that illustrates how the IRR criteria can give wrong answer. (b) Provide an example that illustrates how payback period criterion can give the wrong answer. (c) Describe how risk, safety and hedonism might enter into the calculations in discounting problems.

Q340. Explain sociological wholism (vs. methodological reductionism) and sociological realism (vs. nominalism)

Q363. Demonstrate your understanding of Weber's typology of social action in the context of this course by explaining this diagram.


Q205. Suppose the agents in a population have four behaviors - W, X, Y, Z - and that each behavior is either present or absent. When two agents meet they may have all the same behaviors, none of the same behaviors, or 1 or 2 behaviors in common. Suppose the probability of interaction is proportional to their similarity. IF they do interact, they flip a coin and who ever wins gets imitated by the other agent.

Use the two random number tables below (the left table for doing a Monte Carlo simulation of whether interaction occurs and the left table to determine which agent is the leader and which is the follower) to work out the next state n the grid below, determine the probability of interaction between each pair of neighbors (assume no diagonal interaction for now)

69 72 43 97 87 0 0 0 1 1
37 86 35 23 41 1 1 0 0 1
88 36 94 60 60 1 1 1 0 0
84 26 3 87 12 0 0 1 1 0
8 10 56 52 29 1 1 1 0 0
26 5 30 15 58 0 1 1 1 1
95 3 95 18 69 0 0 1 0 0
71 42 55 64 21 0 0 1 1 0
68 75 90 19 64 0 0 1 1 0
75 13 77 1 89 0 0 0 0 0

Q404. Give a summary of the developmental story Engels tells in "The Origin of the State." Be sure your answer makes connections to the course and to our discussion of hierarchy as a source of order.

Q121. Consider a "leaky" reservoir. Current volume 1,200 million gallons. Inflow 200 million gallons per month. Consumption 150 million gallons per month. Leakage 5% of current volume per month.

  1. Draw a stock and flow diagram of the situation.
  2. Draw a causal loop diagram showing the relationship between reservoir volume and the net in/out flow.
  3. Identify amount(s) and rate(s).
  4. Write the difference equation in the form $P_{n+1} = a \times P_n + b$.
  5. Calculate the expected equilibrium.
  6. Set up Excel model.
  7. Chart reservoir volume vs. time.

Q277. Explain these acronyms: CSV, UTM, JPEG

Q266. What is interpolation and how do heat maps work?

Q185. Sketch a causal loop diagram for these two systems (be sure to label each link and the overall loop). Comment on the long term equilibrium of this system.

  • Being pro candidate X…
    1. …makes you give money…
    2. …makes the campaign send you emails…
    3. …makes you want to go to a rally…
    4. …makes pro candidate X…
  • Being pro candidate X…
    1. …makes you give money…
    2. …makes the campaign send you emails…
    3. …makes you get fed up with the campaign…
    4. …makes you a little sour on candidate X…
  • Not hearing much from the campaign…
    1. …makes you miss your candidate
    2. …makes you feel more pro candidate X

Q197. Explain and give an example of a dominant strategy in a prisoner's dilemma game.

Q248. What criticism would you offer if the diagram below were my first stab at a flow chart for an organizational process? How would you fix it?


Q315. Identify and describe. What does it show? Who made it? When was it made?


Q165. What's the difference between an "equation-based model" and an "agent model"? What are some other synonyms we might hear for these terms?

Q448. Why is the Tocqueville selection in the "groups as a source of social order" section of the text?

Q203. Group these examples of coordination games and explain.

  1. do we store the ketchup in the fridge or in the cabinet?
  2. smokers should marry smokers and non-smokers should marry non-smokers
  3. cat people and dog people and dating
  4. people's sense of what constitutes rudeness
  5. infidelity is never OK, infidelity is OK in certain circumstances
  6. Erring on the side of caution; nothing ventured, nothing gained
  7. Every woman for herself; Let's work as a team.

Q350. Some people summarize Durkheim's "theory of religion" by saying that he discovered that "god is society." Explain the logic of this.

Q356. Demonstrate your understanding of the George Herbert Mead excerpt and its connection to ideas about how the nature of the social individual is a "source" of social order by explaining this diagram. Use examples to illustrate your ideas.


Q31. Demonstrate basic familiarity with email, wikis, Twitter, Facebook, newsgroups, listserves.

Q195. Complete or paraphrase the passage that begins "It is not from the beneficence of the baker…." Who said it? In what context? What does it mean?

Q28. Consider the three networks in the figure below. For each one, calculate the ratio of actual number of edges to the most maximum number of edges possible (assuming the graphs are simple).


Q262. Explain the difference between equal interval, quantile, natural break, and standard deviation as classification methods If your data looked like this, and you have 5 class intervals, what would they be if you used each method?


Q80. If A: until B do C and then, do D if E, otherwise do F while G. Otherwise if H, then if I do J else do K. Do L.

Q249. Translate each of the flow charts below into everyday English.

Q457. The overall logic of the final section of the course was that groups can promote social order through internalization of norms and provision of incentives. Explain how each of these work and what the difference is using at least one thinker to illustrate each.

Q354. In "Dissecting the Social," what does Hedstrom mean by "realism" (14.9)? How is does this compare to Durkheim's dictum to "treat social facts as things"?

Q206. Suppose the agents in a population have four behaviors - W, X, Y, Z - and that each behavior is either present or absent. Further suppose that there is some pressure toward consistency such that having a "don't do" behavior next to a "do do" behavior is uncomfortable and so agents have some internal urge to change their behavior to be more consistent.

Let's say that a behavior that is the only one of its type (a 0 among three 1s, for example) has a 50 percent chance of switching to make the set fully consistent. Each behavior that's one of an even split (e.g., a 0 in a 0011 agent) has a 10% chance of switching. We can put it this way: there is a 10% chance the first behavior changes, 10% the second, etc. and 60% chance no change happens.

Use the two random number table below to work out the next state n the grid below, determine the probability of interaction between each pair of neighbors (assume no diagonal interaction for now). For 50% chance use "random number above 50 = change, below 50 = stay." For the 10% chances, 0<10 is change first, 10<20 change 2, etc.

69 72 43 97 87
37 86 35 23 41
88 36 94 60 60
84 26 3 87 12
8 10 56 52 29
26 5 30 15 58
95 3 95 18 69
71 42 55 64 21
68 75 90 19 64
75 13 77 1 89

Q344. Cohen and Vandello offer a number of supporting findings in their work on culture of honor violence in the American south. Explain what's going on in each of these four summary tables and how this fits in with their analysis.

cohen-vandello-03-table.png cohen-vandello-04-table.png
cohen-vandello-05-table.png cohen-vandello-06-table.png

Q455. Think about the articles by Fehr & Gintis and Centola et al. Show what you take away from these articles by talking about how norms can support cooperation and social order and how they can support an order that might be high on coordination but low on the benefits of cooperation.

Q328. Have a look at this recent release from Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). The data separates those without a job into unemployed but "in the labor force" and "marginally attached to the labor force" and a subset of these called "discouraged" - the former would like to work but have not looked in the last four weeks and so are not counted as unemployed. The latter are not actively looking for work having given up on the idea that its possible to find. These groups are not included in the denominator when the unemployment rate is calculated. The simple version of the unemployment rate is, then,

\begin{align} UR = \frac {Unemployed} {Employed + Unemployed} \end{align}

Some recent op-eds have counseled caution about optimism that the overall unemployment rate has been going down because it might reflect growth in the number of people no longer looking for work. We'll think about that with a Markov model. We'll simplify the states a worker can be in:

  • employed (E)
  • short term unemployed - 14 weeks or less (US)
  • long term unemployed - over 14 weeks (LS)
  • Marginally attached to the labor force - no longer looking for a job (MALF)

Let's construct a simplified Markov model of unemployment based on transition rates shown here:


If the unemployment rate is calculated as the ratio of those who are short term unemployed (US) plus those who are long term unemployed (UL) to the total labor force (E + US + UL), how would things evolve over the next twelve months if the starting numbers are these:


What will the unemployment rate be? Even if it is agreed that getting unemployment to near 6% is a policy goal, are there reasons the results might not be a cause for celebration?

Create a chart showing changes over the next 12 months. Suggestion: plot total employment (E) on secondary axis since it's such a large number. In the alternative, put it on a separate chart.

Excel worksheet here

Q275. What do the four digit numbers on this map of the Laurel District most likely represent?

Q69. Define "coordination" and give five examples of coordination problems that you dealt with today.

Q346. Cohen and Vandello describe a world that may not be politically or morally attractive to you. And yet we read it in a section of the course where we are saying that collective beliefs can be a source of coordination and social order. How does this article illustrate the theoretical points being made by Marx, Durkheim, Mead, and Fleck, indeed of the entire section of the course, that shared meanings can produce order?

Q399. Identify and elaborate on three ways in which the shopfloor culture described by Willis parallels the counter-school culture he talks about.

(for final exam) Bring the phenomena Willis describes into conversation with material from the "groups" section of the course. What mechanisms described in that section might illuminate the lads' oppositional culture or shop floor culture?

Q469. This is one of a series of problems (470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands.

(a) As a part of its considerations about the park project, Ourville needs to think about the opportunity costs associated with each tract of land being considered for the park. What is an opportunity cost? You are nominated to explain (BRIEFLY) in terms the public will understand what we mean by opportunity cost:

(b) While discussing the value of the park options to residents the term "willingness to pay" comes up. Explain (BRIEFLY) to the public what this means.

Q167. Suppose we have a diffusion process in which all susceptibles who are in contact with an infected in a given time period become infected in the next time period. On the grids below color in squares to indicate what happens over the first six time periods beginning with one infected. Then fill in the table and chart the data.


Q199. In the November 2012 general elections some sitting members of congress and the senate failed in their re-election effort and some opted not to run for re-election. After the election we describe those who are still in office but won't be in January as "lame ducks." Drawing on theoretical ideas and empirical ideas in the work of Robert Axelrod, make some predictions of how the dynamics of voting and deal making might be different during a lame duck session.

Q261. Explain these acronyms: DMS, EPSG, CRS

Q114. A totalitarian country that prohibits migration has a birth rate b and a death rate d. How does the population change from one year to the next?

We can interpret "birth rate" or "death rate" in two ways — as a rate, for example, deaths per 100 people — or as an absolute number, for example, 5 people per year. In general, we will mean the former.

Let $P_{i}$ be the population in year i. Write an expression for the population in year i+1. If the population in a given year is 100 and birth rate, b, is 5% and the death rate, d, is 6%, write out the population for the next 5 years.

Q125. Write an equation for the line passing through the points (3,2) and (0,5).

Q299. What is the California CRS zone for Oakland and the Bay Area? What units is it in? What datum is it based on?

Q280. Explain these acronyms: NAD83, NAD27, OSGB

Q235. Schelling’s piece, “Micromotives, Macrobehaviors,” is included because it demonstrates some specific conditions under which market interactions may lead to coordination but not cooperation. What are his two examples and what are the conditions that can affect whether market interactions lead to cooperation? Explain the role they play, perhaps using our class chairs and offices simulation as a point of reference, in limiting the optimism of Smith and Hayek for markets as a source of social order.

Q447. What is Tocqueville's argument that associations help to stabilize democratic regimes?

Q84. If the weather is nice, plant a garden. Otherwise paint the office. For the garden, make a decision between flowers and vegetables. If you go for vegetables, buy compost, seeds, and stakes; till the soil, and hook up the irrigation. If it's flowers this year, go to the garden store and if they have 4 inch plants buy enough for the plot and plant them. If they don't then get flats of smaller plants and bring them home and let them get acclimated for a week and then plant them next week. To till the soil, if the ox is healthy, do it with the animal plow, otherwise get out the rototiller.

Q343. Dov Cohen and Joe Vandello report on several lab experiments in the article on cultures of violence. One experiment involved "annoying" subjects who thought they were doing an experiment on "art therapy." Describe the design of this experiment, its findings, and their relevance to the theoretical ideas explored in Cohen and Vandello's article.

0007. Blank

Q256. Consider the collective action model described in Lecture 17.4: Collective Action and Common Pool Resource Problems where $x_j$ is the cost to me to "pitch in" and do my part in some collective effort. Each member of the collective reaps benefits from the contributions of those who decide to pitch in. In particular, they receive some fraction $\beta$ of all the contributions. Their net benefit is thus, this amount minus the effort they contribute. In other words,

\begin{align} Payoff_j = -x_j + \beta \sum x_i \end{align}

Suppose you are in a class of 21 students and everyone is expected to prepare for class in a manner that costs 1 unit of life. In the class itself, things go much better when people are prepared and we estimate that the benefit a student derives from the class is equal to 0.2 units of life for each person who comes prepared.

(a) What is your net payoff if you do the reading half the class rest of the class comes prepared too?
(b) What is the benefit to a shirker under the same conditions?
(c) How many people do you need to think are going to do the reading to make it worth it to do the reading?

Q286. When using Leaflet to create a webmap, we use code like this:

var cloudmade = L.tileLayer('http://{s}.tile.cloudmade.com/{key}/{styleId}/256/{z}/{x}/{y}.png', {
            attribution: 'Map data &copy; 2011 OpenStreetMap contributors, Imagery &copy; 2011 CloudMade',
            key: 'BC9A493B41014CAABB98F0471D759707',
            styleId: 22677

to create the "attribution" on the map. What does this refer to? Why do we need to do it?

Q118. The Westtown School committee is more generous. It agrees to a 5.5% cost-of-living increase per year, plus a one time only $200 adjustment for past sins of omission. How much would it be worth to teachers if the one time adjustment were made before the first COLA rather than after.

Q412. Explain the basic idea of the prisoner's dilemma.

Q381. Convert penultimate paragraph of Hechter & Horne's introduction into a table that summarizes the theories in this section. Start with their suggestion that each theory has some group dominating others and each has different process leading to this and different consequences deriving from it.

"Each of the readings in this section argues…. from generation to generation."

Q60. Use NodeXL to compute betweenness, closeness, and Eigenvector centralities of the network shown below (Excel file here). Label the vertices with these.

  1. Rearrange the edges so as to get the largest value for betweenness centrality for vertex A
  2. Rearrange the edges so as to get the largest value for closeness centrality for vertex A
  3. Rearrange to get largest Eigenvector centrality

Q188. "Women's issues" have been talked about a lot in the 2012 presidential campaigns. One issue has been the hiring of women in leadership positions in society. Draw a causal loop diagram to represent the following relationships.

The more "gender bias" the fewer qualified women there will be.
More qualified women means more women in positions of power.
The more women in power, the less "gender bias" in society.

Assuming we start with social bias and not many women in positions of power, how is this system likely to behave?

Now let's modify things a bit. Let's suppose we solve the "supply" problem and break the link between bias and the number of qualified women and that the latter grows significantly. We change our model slightly:

Societal bias produces social blindness to existence of qualified women.
This social blindness means fewer women will be in the pool that is considered for positions of power.
The fewer women in the pool, the fewer end up in positions of power.
And, as before, the more (fewer) women in power, the less (more) "gender bias" in society.

Draw this causal model.

Now let's add another causal relation: the fewer women in positions of power, the more NGOs emerge to promote women's participation in government, etc. The NGOs hit on a strategy called that the men in power call "binders of women" — whereby they do the legwork needed to show the men the qualified women that their bias made them blind to.

Add the NGOs and the binders to our causal model. Identify a balancing loop that might portend the achievement of improved gender diversity in positions of power.

Q472. This is one of a series of problems (469, 470, 471, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands.

One option on the table for the community of Ourville is to build a park on the west side of town. Should we spend $100 to build a new park? Studies have determined that the park will provide $132 of benefits to the community's residents. What do you recommend and why?

Q231. A transport company has two types of trucks, Type A and Type B. Type A has a refrigerated capacity of 20 m3 and a non-refrigerated capacity of 40 m3 while Type B has the same overall volume with equal sections for refrigerated and non-refrigerated stock. A grocer needs to hire trucks for the transport of 3,000 m3 of refrigerated stock and 4 000 m3 of non-refrigerated stock. The cost per kilometer of a Type A is $30, and $40 for Type B. How many trucks of each type should the grocer rent to achieve the minimum total cost?


A school district has two types of lower division schools, type A and type B. Type A school buildings have capacity for 200 little kids and 400 big kids. Type B buildings have capacity for 300 little kids and 300 big kids. Next year the district expects enrollments of 3000 little kids and 4000 big kids. Type A buildings cost 30,000 per year to maintain while type B buildings cost 40,000. What mix of school buildings will allow the district to handle the expected enrollment at the lowest maintenance cost? (From VITutor)

Q177. Which of the cumulative frequency distributions below corresponds to this frequency distribution

A. cumfreq01.gif B. cumfreq02.gif C. cumfreq03.gif
D. cumfreq04.gif E. cumfreq05.gif

Q342. With which theorists do we associate this diagram? Explain what it means in the context of their work.


Q99. We want to apply for a home equity line of credit. The bank says it has to know what your house is worth (It has to be worth a certain amount over what we still owe on the mortgage to get a loan at a good rate). A loan at a bad rate will cost $10,000 more than a loan at a good rate. We think there is a 60:40 chance that our house is in fact worth enough to get a good rate. We have a choice between a cheap appraisal ($100) and an expensive appraisal ($1000). A cheap appraisal, we have learned, has a 40% chance of correctly valuing a property. An expensive appraisal is right 70% of the time. Draw a decision tree that will help us figure out what to do.

Q269. Explain longitude, latitude, parallels, meridians


Q337. In "Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact" Ludwik Fleck starts out with the bold statement that "cognition is the most socially-conditioned activity…." Why is this a bold statement? What conventional assumption is he contradicting at the outset?

Q338. "As an entity [a thought collective] is even more stable and consistent than the so-called individual, who always consists of contradictory drives" (57.8). Explain what Fleck means.

Q339. Ludwik Fleck wrote: "what actually thinks within a person is not the individual himself but his social community" (Hechter & Horne 59.5). Explain wha

Q77. Draw a flow charts that represents "Do A until B" and "While B do A. Then do C".

Q305. Open properties dialog for a vector layer and explain briefly what the Styles, Labels, Fields, Metadata, and Joins tabs are for.

Q189. Our campaign wants to hold a giant rally the Sunday before the election. Many voters are fired up, many are tired. Some think we can win, others not so sure. Suppose the ready-to-jump-on-the-bandwagon threshold distribution is shown below. The numbers here mean how many people are willing to come to the rally given different levels of expected participation.

Analyze this information and describe the direction our organizing strategy should go. What should we expect? How much intervention could produce how much of a desired result. Assume that our current research suggests about 40 people are currently planning on going to next week's event.

Threshold Count
0 12
10 3
20 4
30 5
40 6
50 9
60 13
70 17
80 19
90 6
100 0

Q176. Which of the cumulative frequency distributions below corresponds to this frequency distribution

A. cumfreq01.gif B. cumfreq02.gif C. cumfreq03.gif
D. cumfreq04.gif E. cumfreq05.gif

Q239. I need to take a certification exam this year. The exam cost is $200. There is a prep course for the exam, but I don't know if I need it or not. It costs $300 and if one takes it, one is certain to pass the exam. If I do not take the prep course there is a 50% chance of passing and a 50% chance of failing in which case I'd have to take the prep course anyway and then retake the test (total cost = prep course + twice the exam fee). Should I take the prep course??

Q194. Who wrote about the "invisible hand" and what does it mean for us?