Q460. Modify this as you like so it refers to a trip project you might plan with family or friends.

We are proposing an inexpensive family trip from Charleston, South Carolina, to Des Moines, Iowa, to visit relatives during December school holidays. The seasonal trip we dream of taking from Charleston to Des Moines is the “program.” Basic assumptions about our trip “program” are:

  • We want to visit relatives between 12/10/00 and 1/5/01 while the children are out of school.
  • We will fly from South Carolina to Iowa because it takes less time than driving and because frequent flier (FF) miles are available.
  • Using frequent flier miles will reduce travel costs.

We have to determine the factors influencing our trip, including necessary resources, such as, the number of family members, scheduled vacation time, the number of frequent flier miles we have, round trip air reservations for each family member, and transportation to and from our home to the airport. The activities necessary to make this happen are the creation of our own family holiday schedule, securing our Iowa relative’s schedule, garnering air line information and reservations and planning for transportation to and from the airport.


Q26. Amir likes Bashir. Chastity is liked by Danica. Chastity likes Ellen. Amir likes Danica and Ellen. Franke likes everyone. Gillian likes Danica. Ellen likes Bashir. Sketch this directed network.


Q33. Practice Gephi exercises.

djjrfb2009.jpg
djrFB2012.gif

Q255. Work through the section on direct reciprocity in Nowak and Sigmund, "How Populations Cohere."


Q377. Explain, in your own words, the concept of "sociological clones" (H&H 84).


Q260. Explain how "group selection" can give rise to cooperative behavior in human society.


Q276. Go to OpenStreetMap.org and edit a building structure in the neighborhood around Mills.


Q337. In "Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact" Ludwik Fleck starts out with the bold statement that "cognition is the most socially-conditioned activity…." Why is this a bold statement? What conventional assumption is he contradicting at the outset?


Q357. Demonstrate your understanding of the Durkheim excerpt and its connection to ideas about how the nature of the social individual is a "source" of social order by explaining this diagram. Use examples to illustrate your ideas.

sharedmeaningToOrderDurkheim.png

Q324. You are the board chairperson of a small non-profit and you are hiring new executive director. It has come down to two candidates, one rather plain vanilla and, frankly, a bit boring, but rock solid, and the other quite exciting and edgy. After all the interviews and due diligence, you and your board estimate that that with the boring candidate there is a 94% likelihood that she'll be OK, a 5% chance that she'll be amazing, and a 1% chance that she'll be a disaster. You estimate the "value" of OK to be 25, the value of amazing to be 100 and the value of disaster to be -100.

(A) What is the expected value of hiring the boring candidate?

The board estimates that there is a 60% chance that the edgy candidate is amazing and a 40% chance she will be a disaster.

(B) What is the expected value of hiring the edgy candidate? Other things being equal, what is the best decision here?

A consultant friend of your tells you about a personality test that you can administer to job candidates that helps distinguish between those likely to be amazing and those likely to be a disaster.

(C) With the above assumptions, how much would it be worth to have this test to use on your edgy candidate (the test would tell you for sure whether this particular edgy person is the amazing or the disaster type)?

But suppose it's not a perfect test, but it's pretty good. It turns out that with candidates who really are amazing it gets it right about 75% of the time. With those who are actually disasters waiting to happen, it gets that right 90% of the time.

(D) If the test were administered to our edgy candidate and she passed, how likely is it that she'd be amazing? And if she failed, how likely she was actually a disaster?

(E) How much would we be willing to pay for the imperfect test?

Excel Worksheet Here


Q235. Schelling’s piece, “Micromotives, Macrobehaviors,” is included because it demonstrates some specific conditions under which market interactions may lead to coordination but not cooperation. What are his two examples and what are the conditions that can affect whether market interactions lead to cooperation? Explain the role they play, perhaps using our class chairs and offices simulation as a point of reference, in limiting the optimism of Smith and Hayek for markets as a source of social order.


Q457. The overall logic of the final section of the course was that groups can promote social order through internalization of norms and provision of incentives. Explain how each of these work and what the difference is using at least one thinker to illustrate each.


Q294. Identify the counties in this band across northern California

CCSzone3Counties.png

Q291. What do we call this kind of map?

africapolitical.png

Q224. You are working for an agricultural cooperative which is helping local farmers figure out how to optimize the mixture of crops they plant. A typical farmer has 10 acres to plant in wheat and rye. She has to plant at least 7 acres. However, she has only the equivalent of $1200 to spend and each acre of wheat costs $200 to plant and each acre of rye costs $100 to plant. Moreover, the farmer has to get the planting done in 12 hours and it takes an hour to plant an acre of wheat and 2 hours to plant an acre of rye. If the expected profit is $500 per acre of wheat and $300 per acre of rye how many acres of each should be planted to maximize profits? (From Steve Wilson)


Q474. This is one of a series of problems (469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 475, 476, 477, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands.

The mayor of Ourville wants a more detailed analysis on option A. Apparently, the park could range in size from the very small to the very large. Budget concerns are not an issue for now. Examine the information below. What do you recommend and why? For example: What type of problem is this? What is the fundamental rule? How big should the park be?

q0474-cba-01.jpg

Q327. Our agency provides three types of client service: A, B, and C. And we have 3 kinds of staff: X, Y, and Z.

Each type A service requires 3 hours of an X staff member's time and 1 hour of a Y. Type B requires 2 X, 1 Y, and 3 Z hours. And type C requires 1 X, 3 Y, and 2 Z.

Currently we have 2 X, 1 Y and 1 Z on staff. We pay X's $25 per hour, Ys get $30 and Zs get $40. Assume everyone works a 35 hour week. At 35 hours per week our labor costs are 4200.

Revenue from type A service is $100, B is $200, and C is $300.

Regulations require that we serve at least 5 of each client type each week and that we serve at total of at least 21 clients each week.

What client mix will allow us to maximize revenue?

Excel Worksheet here.


Q123. Suppose I am sitting on $20,000 and I am trying to figure out whether or not to use it to buy a car. I have a very limited life and have determined that if I buy the car I will have to pay $800 insurance and about 10 cents per mile to operate it and I drive 2500 miles per year. If I own a car I'll drive rather than take the bus on approximately 300 local commutes (saving $1000 and 150 hours net). My time is worth $50 per hour. An alternative would be to put the $20,000 into an investment vehicle (so to speak) that would pay me 7.5% annually.


Q84. If the weather is nice, plant a garden. Otherwise paint the office. For the garden, make a decision between flowers and vegetables. If you go for vegetables, buy compost, seeds, and stakes; till the soil, and hook up the irrigation. If it's flowers this year, go to the garden store and if they have 4 inch plants buy enough for the plot and plant them. If they don't then get flats of smaller plants and bring them home and let them get acclimated for a week and then plant them next week. To till the soil, if the ox is healthy, do it with the animal plow, otherwise get out the rototiller.


Q34. Write out the data for the undirected network below in node list, edge list and full matrix format.

q34-01.gif
q34-02.gif

Q162. Explain this passage by Durkheim:

In “The Origin of Beliefs,” Emile Durkheim writes

" Thus it is not the intrinsic nature of the thing who name the clan bore that set it apart as the object of worship. Furthermore, if the emotion elicited by the thing itself really was the determining cause of totemic rites and beliefs, then this thing would also be the sacred being par excellence, and the animals and plants used as totems would play the leading role in religious life. But we know that the focus of the cult is elsewhere. It is symbolic representations of this or that plant or animal. It is totemic emblems and symbols of all kinds that possess the greatest sanctity. And so it is in totemic emblems and symbols that the religious source is to be found, while the real objects, represented by those emblems receive only a reflection” (49).

The totem is above all a symbol, a tangible expression of something else. But of what? (49)


Q379. "Marx and Engels suggest that the disadvantaged are duped by the institutions and ideology of the ruling class" (Hechter and Horne, 85). Elaborate.


Q402. Engels suggests that throughout history the state has been "for the ruling class." Identify the three historical periods he talks about and characterize how this plays out in each.


Q73. Sketch a flowchart that represents this bit of logic: “if cell E$3 is greater than cell G$12 then value is G$12; otherwise, value is G$12-E$3.”


Q318. What does the indicatrix on this Fuller projection or "Dymaxion" map tell you about this projection (which projects the globe onto an icosohedron and then unfolds the solid figure)?

FullerProjection.png

Q220. What is the objective function in each of the following situations?

  1. What is the largest volume box I can make by folding a piece of cardboard that is A inches by B inches?
  2. Pancakes cost $1 each, eggs are 1.50, and blintzes are 2. Pancakes have 200 calories, eggs 125 and blintzes 450. What combination gives me the most calories for 5 dollars?
  3. What's the cheapest 1000 calorie daily diet?
  4. I have information on the level of AOD demand reduction we can expect from public awareness campaigns, DARE visits to public schools, increased treatment slots, and increases in after care. I know the cost of each type program and I have a limited budget. What mix of programs should I institute to have the biggest effect on demand?

Q395. Explain the following terms or phrases in the context of Paul Willis' Learning to Labour.

"an aimless air of insubordination" (124.4)
'ear'oles (124.9)
"universal taboo…yielding incriminating information…to those with formal power" (129.3)
"grassing" (129.4)


Q398. According to Willis, what is the "main theme of shopfloor culture"? Explain and give examples.


Q305. Open properties dialog for a vector layer and explain briefly what the Styles, Labels, Fields, Metadata, and Joins tabs are for.


Q160. Comment on and improve upon the following text explication

Text Explication
In ‘Genesis and the Development of a Scientific Fact’, Fleck refers to language as a key form of interaction. He writes, “Thoughts pass from one individual to another, each time a little transformed, for each individual can attach to them somewhat different associations” (55). That is, thoughts that are submitted through language can inspire new and different meanings once shared through spoken word.

Q127. Consider the singles bar scene. Develop a model along the lines of the market for lemons (Wikipedia), that would suggest that information asymmetries could possibly kill the scene. What institutional interventions prevent this from happening?.


Q347. George Herbert Mead writes of "taking the attitude of the other" as a necessary part of social life.

"…the complex co-operative processes … organized human society are also possible only in so far as every individual involved in them … can take the general attitudes of all other such individuals … and can direct his own behavior accordingly" (61.5).

Give an example of a social situation that bears this out, describing the various participants and how they can "take the attitude of the others" and what would happen if they got it wrong, or in situations where people do this less well or less completely.


Q282. Explain these acronyms: USGS, NOAA, NASA


Q147. Identify and fix problems of diction in these examples.


Q412. Explain the basic idea of the prisoner's dilemma.


Q212. Explicate and comment:

In any group of men of more than the smallest size, collaboration will always rest both on spontaneous order as well as on deliberate organization. There is no doubt that for many limited tasks organization is the most powerful method of effective co-ordination because it enables us to adapt the resulting order much more fully to our wishes, while where, becuase of the complexity of the circumstances to be taken into account, we must rely on the forces making for a spontaneous order, our power over the particular contents of this order is necessarily restricted.

That the two kinds of order will regularly coexist in every society of any degree of complexity does not mean, however, that we can combine them in any manner we like. What in fact we find in all free societies is that, although groups of men will join in organizations for the achievement of some particular ends, the co-ordination of the activities of all these separate organizations, as well as of the separate individuals, is brought about by the forces making for a spontaneous order. The family, the farm, the plant, the firm, the corporation and the various associations, and all the public institutions including government, are organizations which in turn are integrated into a more comprehensive spontaneous order (Hayek 1976: 149.5-7).


Q323. What flow chart concept does this diagram illustrate? Explain what it means and how we use it. Draw the series of flow charts implied by this diagram.

levels-of-detail.gif

Q38. Homophily Problems


Q208. Explicate and comment:

One of our main contentions will be that very complex orders, comprising more particular facts than any brain could ascertain or manipulate, can be brought about only through forces inducing the formation of spontaneous orders (Hayek 1976: 143.5).


Q213. Explicate and comment:

What the general argument against 'interference' thus amounts to is that, although we can endeavor to improve a spontaneous order by revising the general rules on which it rests, and can supplement its results by the efforts of various organizations, we cannot improve the results by specific commands that deprive its members of the possibility of using their knowledge for their purposes (Hayek 1976:153.1).


Q145. Wordsmith:

There are different types of secrets, in this situation the secret is a dark secret which has to be kept from the audience forever. “These consist of facts about a team which it knows and conceals and which are incompatible with the image of self that the team attempts to maintain before its audience” (Goffman, 1959, p. 141).


Q115. There are no births in a Shaker community, only R recruits per year. The death rate is d. What is the difference equation that describes this situation?


Q274. Fill in the names of the "districts" in Oakland.

oakland-districts-blank.png

Q69. Define "coordination" and give five examples of coordination problems that you dealt with today.


Q456. Provide a high level comparison of shared meaning, hierarchy, markets, and groups as sources of social organization understood as coordination and cooperation.


Q344. Cohen and Vandello offer a number of supporting findings in their work on culture of honor violence in the American south. Explain what's going on in each of these four summary tables and how this fits in with their analysis.

cohen-vandello-03-table.png cohen-vandello-04-table.png
cohen-vandello-05-table.png cohen-vandello-06-table.png

Q189. Our campaign wants to hold a giant rally the Sunday before the election. Many voters are fired up, many are tired. Some think we can win, others not so sure. Suppose the ready-to-jump-on-the-bandwagon threshold distribution is shown below. The numbers here mean how many people are willing to come to the rally given different levels of expected participation.

Analyze this information and describe the direction our organizing strategy should go. What should we expect? How much intervention could produce how much of a desired result. Assume that our current research suggests about 40 people are currently planning on going to next week's event.

Threshold Count
0 12
10 3
20 4
30 5
40 6
50 9
60 13
70 17
80 19
90 6
100 0

Q304. Open and explain attribute table. What are rows, what are columns? What do the controls along the bottom do? How do you sort rows? Change column width? Show only selected records? Select one or two rows and then reverse the selection.


Q125. Write an equation for the line passing through the points (3,2) and (0,5).


Q440. Define:
regimen (239.6)
erethism (242)
equanimity (242)
apotheosis (243.6)
sacrilege (243.6)
(purely) utilitarian (regulation) (243.7)
liberal professions (244.8)


Q247. What's wrong with this flow chart? How would you fix it?

flowchart-bad-03.png

18. Deviance has multiple functions. Give a examples of deviation as (1) a pressure release valve; (2) innovation.


Q400. Willis' Learning to Labour is often cited as an example of the social science concept of the "reproduction of social class." Explain what that phrase means to you after reading the excerpt from Willis' book.


Q37. Centrality Problems


Q315. Identify and describe. What does it show? Who made it? When was it made?

minard-napoleon.png

Q466. A state agency is considering a childcare subsidy that would facilitate single parents attainment of college degrees. The benefit would cost $10k per recipient per year for four years. The expectation is that individuals with a college degree will earn more than individuals without a college degree. This means that they generate more revenue in the form of income tax. They are also less likely to require government assistance of various kinds — call this amount A. Assume current rules limit us to a ten year time horizon. Assume the average salary difference between non-college grads and college grads is D (but get the real info here) and that the marginal tax rate can be found here. Assume a 5% discount rate. For the purposes of this problem, we will ignore inflation.


Q44. Media analysis of SOPA wars.


Q198. What is "tit-for-tat" and why, according to Robert Axelrod, is it so effective?


Q367. A storyboard is a technique for graphically organizing the telling of a story. Think about how you would explain Weber's typology of social action as it relates to our concerns with the generation of social order. Imagine how you would represent the theory visually and how you would explain it textually.

storyboard.png

Q88. Convert the following statement to “pseudo-Excel” formulas (follow the example to see what we mean by that).
Example. "If it is Tuesday, this must be Belgium, otherwise it is France" would become something like

= if(day="Tuesday","Belgium","France")

If the calculated payment (CALC_PMT) is less than the alternative monthly minimum payment (ALT_MIN_PMT) then the payment is the alternative monthly payment otherwise it is the calculated payment.


Q165. What's the difference between an "equation-based model" and an "agent model"? What are some other synonyms we might hear for these terms?


Q307. Find a color scheme using ColorBrewer and implement it on a polygon layer in QGIS.


Q206. Suppose the agents in a population have four behaviors - W, X, Y, Z - and that each behavior is either present or absent. Further suppose that there is some pressure toward consistency such that having a "don't do" behavior next to a "do do" behavior is uncomfortable and so agents have some internal urge to change their behavior to be more consistent.

Let's say that a behavior that is the only one of its type (a 0 among three 1s, for example) has a 50 percent chance of switching to make the set fully consistent. Each behavior that's one of an even split (e.g., a 0 in a 0011 agent) has a 10% chance of switching. We can put it this way: there is a 10% chance the first behavior changes, 10% the second, etc. and 60% chance no change happens.

Use the two random number table below to work out the next state n the grid below, determine the probability of interaction between each pair of neighbors (assume no diagonal interaction for now). For 50% chance use "random number above 50 = change, below 50 = stay." For the 10% chances, 0<10 is change first, 10<20 change 2, etc.

69 72 43 97 87
37 86 35 23 41
88 36 94 60 60
84 26 3 87 12
8 10 56 52 29
26 5 30 15 58
95 3 95 18 69
71 42 55 64 21
68 75 90 19 64
75 13 77 1 89
A
1110
B
1010
C
0010
D
1001
E
0000
F
1111
G
1001
H
1011

Q321.: Our consulting firm, NGOsRus, has developed a new organizational assay protocol to help characterize the financial health of community organizations. We have tested the instrument on many organizations whose financial well-being has been determined by other, much more expensive means. Here's what we know:

Healthy organizations pass the test 80% of the time but fail it 20% of the time. Unhealthy organizations fail the test 88% of the time but pass 12% of the time.

How likely is it that an organization that passes the test is, in fact, in good state financially?


15. Write a few paragraphs (< 400 words) explaining what makes these two situations a pair.

By the late 1630s and 1640s the population of Massachusetts Bay was no longer just the original “true believer” settlers. Some of the disputes that arose at this time were around the question of who is “really” a Puritan, whether people who aren’t “saved” should be voting members and so on.
and
“Political correctness” became an issue in the 1980s and 1990s ten to twenty years after the major social value shifts which occurred in the late 1960s around issues of race, gender, and politics. People became increasingly concerned about appearing to be on the right side of various debates even when they didn’t wholeheartedly agree with a given position.


Q472. This is one of a series of problems (469, 470, 471, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands.

One option on the table for the community of Ourville is to build a park on the west side of town. Should we spend $100 to build a new park? Studies have determined that the park will provide $132 of benefits to the community's residents. What do you recommend and why?


Q36. Consider the graph matrix below

A B C D E
A - 0 1 0 1
B 0 - 0 1 1
C 0 1 - 1 1
D 0 0 1 - 0
E 0 1 1 1 -
  1. We use $n$ for the number of vertices. What is $n$ here?
  2. What is $\sum _{ i=1 }^{ n }{ { A }_{ i4 } }$?
  3. What is $\sum _{ j=1 }^{ n }{ { A }_{ 3j } }$?
(1)
\begin{align} \sum _{ i=1 }^{ n }{ { A }_{ i4 } } \end{align}

Q370. A storyboard is a technique for graphically organizing the telling of a story. Think about how you would explain Cohen and Vandello's work on violence and cultures of honor as an illustration of theories of how the human individual is a vehicle for the generation of social order. Imagine how you would represent the theory visually and how you would explain it textually.

storyboard.png

Q230. A store wants to liquidate 200 of its shirts and 100 pairs of pants from last season. They have decided to put together two offers, A and B. Offer A is a package of one shirt and a pair of pants which will sell for $30. Offer B is a package of three shirts and a pair of pants, which will sell for $50. The store does not want to sell less than 20 packages of Offer A and less than 10 of Offer B. How many packages of each do they have to sell to maximize the money generated from the promotion? (From VITutor)


Q393. What does Weber mean by "social levelling"? (111)


Q342. With which theorists do we associate this diagram? Explain what it means in the context of their work.

cohen-vandello-02-politeness-violence.png

Q214. Explicate and comment:

Akerlof generalized this model to a number of markets in which there is unequal information on the two sides - insurance companies know less than you do, usually, about whether you are accident prone, or susceptible to hereditary diseases, or are contemplating suicide. Life insurance rates for sixty-five-year-olds must allow for a large fraction who are not long for this world. And those who know they are healthy and have a family history of longevity and are exposed to few risks have to pay the same premium as the poorer risks; life insurance being unattractive [to them] at that price, few of them buys it. The average life expectancy of the customers goes down, the rates go up further, and the bargain now looks poor even to those of normal life expectancy. And so forth.

…. It is akin to, and sometimes coincides with, those situations in which the below average, or the above average, withdraw or won't join, causing some potential market or institution to unravel. Because people vary and because averages matter, there may be no sustainable critical mass; and the unraveling behavior, or initial failure to get the activity going at all, has much the appearance of a critical mass that is almost but not quite achieved (Schelling 1978: 159.5-7).


Q426. Weber's definition, please:

traditional authority
rational legal authority
charismatic authority


Q463. (1) Write the equation for value, FV, of principal, PV, saved at interest rate R for N years (compounded annually).

(2) Suppose you know the future value in problem one and want to determine the present value. Solve the equation you wrote above for PV.

(3) Suppose I have a project that will deliver A dollars in one year, B dollars the second year and C dollars in the third year under a prevailing interest/discount rate of R. Write the equation for the present value of this project.


Q30. Write out your responses to the following.

  • Lists
  1. Name at least ten areas of human, social, natural phenomena that have been explored by network researchers.
  2. Identify/describe three networks you have encountered this week.
  3. Name at least five academic disciplines in which the study of networks has become a big deal.
  • Meta
  1. Newman, et al. mention "theoretical" work, "empirical" work, and modeling as activities associated with network science. What do you understand by each of these?
  2. Hansen, et al. (and to a lesser extent other authors here) suggest some grandiose assessments of network science's place in the history of science. Newman et al. hint at some tensions between the kind of data social scientists collect and the tools they have for analyzing them and the kind of data used in the "new science of networks" and the tools brought to the task by physicists and computer scientists. Can you zero in on the passages and identify some of the issues?
  3. In sections 1.6-8, Hansen et al. describe applications of social media to public problems, crowdsourcing, and problems of engagement, mentioning, eventually, the term "sociotechnical systems." Meditate a bit on the dual answers this suggests to the question "how can I use my degree in sociology (or whatever your major is)?" — either studying how technology changes the world or being actively involved in designing things that can change the world.
  • Real World
  1. From how many realms do your facebook friends come? Estimate the macro-structure of your facebook network just based on thinking about it. How does it show the different social circles you are a member of? How does it show your different "sides"? How does it show your personal biography? How big do you think the different clusters are? Can you think of people who link the different clusters together?

Q137. Derive the equation for the equilibrium value of a difference equation from a formula that shows how Pn+1 relates to Pn.


Q64. We'll use data on early 20th century Scottish industries to investigate interlocking directorates.

(From Pajek data online) This dataset contains the corporate interlocks in Scotland in the beginning of the twentieth century (1904-5). In the nineteenth century, the industrial revolution brought Scotland railways and industrialization, especially heavy industry and textile industry. The amount of capital needed for these large scale undertakings exceeded the means of private families, so joint stock companies were established, which could raise the required capital. Joint stock companies are owned by the shareholders, who are represented by a board of directors. This opens up the possibility of interlocking directorates. By the end of the nineteenth century, joint stock companies had become the predominant form of business enterprise at the expense of private family businesses. Families, however, still exercised control through ownership and directorships.

The data are taken from the book The Anatomy of Scottish Capital by John Scott and Michael Hughes. It lists the (136) multiple directors of the 108 largest joint stock companies in Scotland in 1904-5: 64 non-financial firms, 8 banks, 14 insurance companies, and 22 investment and property companies (Scotland.net). In this dataset, which was compiled from the Appendix of Scott & Hughes' book, note that two multiple directors (W.S. Fraser and C.D. Menzies) are affiliated with just one board so they are not multiple directors in the strict sense.
The companies are classified according to industry type: 1 - oil & mining, 2 - railway, 3 - engineering & steel, 4 - electricity & chemicals, 5 - domestic products, 6 - banks, 7 - insurance, and 8 - investment. In addition, there is a vector specifying the total capital or deposits of the firms in 1,000 pound sterling.

References

John Scott & Michael Hughes, The anatomy of Scottish capital: Scottish companies and Scottish capital, 1900-1979 (London: Croom Helm, 1980).
W. de Nooy, A. Mrvar, & V. Batagelj, Exploratory Social Network Analysis with Pajek (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), Chapter 5.

History

Original authors: are John Paul Scott (1949) (ku.ca.xesse|jttocs#ku.ca.xesse|jttocs, University of Essex) & Michael Hughes (1947, University of Lancaster in 1980, not listed now).
Data compiled into Pajek data files by W. de Nooy, 2001

Use NodeXL to visualize this data. The data is in three network datasets: a bipartite network of people and companies (edges represent a person being a director of a company); a network of people (the edges are co-membership in companies); and a network of companies (edges are sharing a director).

Task 1: Create a preliminary two mode visualization that shows people as small circles and companies as larger squares. Try different layouts (including manually assisted) and produce the best visualization you can (in a reasonable amount of time). Can you color the companies by industry? Are there individuals who appear to be bridges between industries? Or who appear to be kingpins in a particular industry?

Task 2: Do a quick exploration of the people by people network. Try different visualizations. Calculate graph metrics. It might clarify the visualization if you use dynamic filtering to discard barely connected individuals. Change node size by graph metric. Can you identify a class of apparently important people? Try clustering.

Task 3: Now look at company by company network. Cluster, color, explore. How much do network clusters follow industry? Are there cluster bridging companies? Are you surprised at what they are.

Turn in short paper that shows your explorations.

The data is in the following Excel files.

No files attached to this page.


Q183. In the election between candidate A and candidate B, for voter X it comes down to what the candidate will do for the elderly. The election is a toss-up and it may well come down to X's vote. Research indicates that candidate A is quite likely (75% chance) to do 4 things for the elderly but many only end up doing one thing (25% chance). Candidate B, on the other hand, is very unlikely to do 4 things (10%) but is 90% likely to do 2 things. For whom should X vote if this is the deciding issue.


Q412. Explain the basic idea of the prisoner's dilemma.


Q341. Explain what George Herbert Mead means when he describes "self consciousness" as becoming aware of oneself as an object for others. How is it that this is what gives rise to the "social self"?


Q336. What does Ludwick Fleck mean by a "thought collective"?


Q363. Demonstrate your understanding of Weber's typology of social action in the context of this course by explaining this diagram.

weber-types-of-action-01.png

Q157. Sketch the transition matrix that corresponds to the following diagram

p0157-markov-01.jpg

Q138. Suggest rewrite of the following text:

For example, Goffman uses front to distinguish and label the different parts of front as he sets a scene that consist of three components by using setting, appearance, and manner. In which an actor has the ability to choose his stage and props, as well as the costume he would wear in front of his audience (p.22-24).


Q416. Explain what we mean by distinguishing a one-shot PD from an iterated PD and why this is important.


Q335. Consider Marx on the production of consciousness. How important does the kind of work seem to be as over against the kinds interaction among people who do the same kind of work for Marx? Compare, perhaps, Uber drivers and fast food workers. Would Marx expect less or a different kind of shared consciousness among the one or the other?


Q425. What research questions did the "live and let live" phenomenon from WWI raise for Robert Axelrod?


Q451. If the phenomenon described by Centola et al. is common, what are the implications for Schelling's critical mass and tipping models?


Q200. One of the most important concepts coming out of market, rational choice, and game theory models is "equilibrium." What do we mean by an equilibrium in game theory? Give an example and explain what we would mean if we said "get caught in a bad equilibrium."


Q92. What is wrong with the decision tree here? I need to decide whether to work at home or go down to Stanford today. At home, because of distractions, I work at about 75% efficiency. If I go to my research office at Stanford I work at 100% efficiency. If I work at home I will get 8 hours to work. If I decide to drive down to Stanford, I will get 8 hours minus driving time to work. The normal drive is ^0 minutes each way. But about 20% of the time it is extra light and the round trip takes just 90 minutes. About 30% of the time, though, traffic is awful and round trip is 180 minutes. I made a decision tree to figure out where I should work if I am trying to maximize my output, but I did something wrong. Fix the tree and tell me what I should do.

decision-tree-problems-01.gif

Q154. Suppose a given housing market has a 10% turnover rate each year. How many houses will typically be in the first, second, third, etc. year of their mortgage at any given time? Assume 10 year mortgages to keep things simple. Draw the diagram that would be the first step in solving this problem.


Q58. Consider these examples of claimsmaking…


Q376. In the context of Engels, what is a class? What are the main classes under feudalism? Capitalism?


Q259. What are the 5+2 means of achieving cooperation in the face of structural arrangements that "mandate" non-cooperation in human relationships?


20. Explain what is meant by "social control as a dependent variable."


Q141. Wordsmith the following

When the performer is playing her role as society expects her to it is called idealization. Goffman’s definition of idealization is “when the individual presents himself towards others, his performance will tend to incorporate and exemplify the officially accredited values of the society, more so in fact, than does his behavior as a whole” (p.35).


Q444. Tocqueville writes that "Americans combat individualism with free institutions" (246). Explain what he means.


Q201. (1) Explain what 'the allegory of the dying seminar' was in Thomas Schelling's work. (2) What (incorrect) conclusion about human behavior might observers draw from the dying seminar? (3) What other examples of this phenomenon does Schelling offer? (4) What generic phenomenon are these all examples of?


Q119. Mills public policy program recruits R new students each fall. In the spring 0.0G (i.e., G%) students graduate. At the end of a typical year 0.0L (i.e., L%) of active students leave for personal or other reasons. Express the current student population, P, in terms of these figures.


Q31. Demonstrate basic familiarity with email, wikis, Twitter, Facebook, newsgroups, listserves.


Q234. Hayek is sometimes taken to be saying that the modern world throws up problems that are too complex to be handled by planning and policy making. Some things can be handled that way, but big and complex things cannot. What are the differences between the two types of order and the limitations and possibilities Hayek suggests each has and how does he get from there to social order?


Q48. Convert the information below - data on four organizations, listing the members of their boards of directors - into a network data format and then use a network visualization program to show the 2 mode network laid out nicely with nodes labeled.

Acme Association Boothwyn Foundation The Cannalo Organization Dynamic Educational Consulting
Allen Allen Barb Chris
Barb Ethan Chris Dante
Chris Fran Ethan Ethan
Dante Gent Fran Kelly
Harri Ishtar Lori
Jack Miguel

Q238.

fehr-gintis-results-01.gif

Fehr and Gintis describe experiments using a "public goods game." In the regular game, players tended to free-ride more and more as the game progresses. These results suggest that the sociological idea that people do the right thing because they are socialized to care about others is naive. Most people do not act in a “pro-social” manner. They free-ride.

When punishment is permitted, players punish free-riders even at a cost. Public goods increase as free-riding drops. Results like this defy the economic idea of people as selfish maximizers. They also suggest that hierarchy (surveillance/punishment) need not be centralized.

In the light of these results and the rest of the course, how do you think individual internalization of social values/norms, hierarchy, decentralized market interaction, and groups combine to create social order?


Q309. Demonstrate that you know you way around the Print Composer.


Q156. A state corrections system has established a new drug treatment facility for first offenders. The center has a capacity of 1000.

Inmates may leave the facility in either of two ways. In any period, there is a 10 percent probability that an inmate will be judged rehabilitated, in which case s/he will be released at the beginning of the following period.. There is also a 5 percent chance that an inmate will escape during each period. Rehabilitated addicts have a 20 percent chance of relapsing in each period; escapees have a 10 percent chance of being recaptured each period. Both recidivists and recaptured escapees are returned to the facility and have priority over new offenders.

Questions

If it operates at full capacity, how many of the original inmates will be resident at the facility 10 periods later?
How many new offenders can be admitted during each of the next 2 periods?
What happens if we modify the model to allow for a small possibility of death or a change in the probability of relapse?


Q60. Use NodeXL to compute betweenness, closeness, and Eigenvector centralities of the network shown below (Excel file here). Label the vertices with these.

  1. Rearrange the edges so as to get the largest value for betweenness centrality for vertex A
  2. Rearrange the edges so as to get the largest value for closeness centrality for vertex A
  3. Rearrange to get largest Eigenvector centrality
q0060-a.gif

Q429. Briefly explain Freud's theory of where guilt comes from.


Q228. A school is preparing a trip for 400 students. The company who is providing the transportation has 10 buses of 50 seats each and 8 buses of 40 seats, but only has 9 drivers available. The rental cost for a large bus is $800 and $600 for the small bus. Calculate how many buses of each type should be used for the trip for the least possible cost. (From VITutor)


Q369. A storyboard is a technique for graphically organizing the telling of a story. Think about how you would explain Fleck's theory of thought communities as a theory of how the human individual is a vehicle for the generation of social order. Imagine how you would represent the theory visually and how you would explain it textually.

storyboard.png

Q146. Tweak:

Although there are many components to his theory of performativity, in this essay I will focus on the use of “fronts” and “dramatic realization” in face-to-face interactions – two concepts from his first chapter (Goffman 22, 30).


Q253. Consider this network in which green agents are cooperators and violet are defectors and the cost of cooperating is 2 while the benefit of being cooperated with is 5. Where is the equilibrium is people's behavior changes based on their network experiences?

network-reciprocity-02.png

Q418. Context and explication, please: "if the future is important, there is no one best strategy."

If the discount parameter, w, is sufficiently high, there is no best strategy independent of the strategy used by the other player.


Q179. Which of the cumulative frequency distributions below corresponds to this frequency distribution

histogram04.gif
A. cumfreq01.gif B. cumfreq02.gif C. cumfreq03.gif
D. cumfreq04.gif E. cumfreq05.gif

Q366. A storyboard is a technique for graphically organizing the telling of a story. Think about how you would explain Mead's theory of the social self as a theory of how the human individual is a vehicle for the generation of social order. Imagine how you would represent the theory visually and how you would explain it textually.

storyboard.png

Q411. What is Axelerod's fundamental question in "The Evolution of Cooperation"? It has four parts.


Q437. On p 243 we read "this liberation of desires has been made worse by the very development of industry and the almost infinite extension of the market." Consult the text (including the text before this passage) and say something about what Durkheim's take on globalization of markets and products might be.


Q391. Weber describes "monocratic bureaucracy" as an ideal type. What is an ideal type? Describe the five characteristics of an ideal typical bureaucracy.


Q407. Weber's definition, please:

power
legitimacy
authority


Q219. Translate the following into inequalities.

  1. I can only I spend as much cash as in my wallet on dinner, dessert, drinks, and a tip and I really want to have dinner and drinks though I might pass on dessert.
  2. You are managing a youth shelter. Kids present with an array of personal challenges, each of which require different levels of attention from your staff. Clients with issue A require 4 hours of attention per week. Issue B, about 2 hours, C requires 16, and D 7. Your budget allows you to staff 75 hours per week.
  3. Breakfast is some eggs, some pancakes, some bacon. You have to have at least twice as many pancakes as eggs. You can't have fewer than 2 strips of bacon.

Q170. Suppose you have a population of one hundred persons. It is divided into five categories of willingness to join a protest all of which depend on people's expectations of how many others will appear at the protest. The thresholds range from very low (I'll go if anyone else is going) to the very high (I won't go unless basically everybody else is going).

Assume the population is divided among these categories as follows:

Challenge of Recruiting Very Easy Easy Average Hard Very Hard
Participation Threshold 1 10 40 60 99
Number at this threshold 10 20 40 20 10

a. If news reports suggest that 15 people will show up, how many actually will?

b. If last week saw participation of 41 and this is widely reported so that everyone knows, how many will come out this week? And then next week? And after that?

c. What if 91 came last week?


Q144. Wordsmith this passage

In the second chapter of his book Goffman elaborates on the concept of teams. He refers to “team performance” as “teams” and it is “to refer to any set of individuals who co-operate in staging a single routine” (Goffman, 1959, 79). In other words Goffman’s concept of a team is a group of people that are adhering and working towards the same goal.


Q110. Each year the feral cat population grows by 3%. Let Cn be the number of cats n years from now. Assume there are presently 350. Suppose that each year we catch and euthanize or place in homes 20 cats. Write the equations for this situation.


23. Both Donald Black and Robert Ellickson take care to distinguish between first, second, and third party social control. Most of this course has focused on one particular type of third party control – informal control through social norms. Using marriage/married life as an example, briefly demonstrate that you understand that control varies from personal ethics (first party, self control), promisee enforced contracts (second party), and the three types of third party control (organizational rules, law, and social norms) by describing ways each might come up in association with marriage, married relationships, etc..


16. In some countries (and in some parts of this country) bus queues are more orderly and more common than in others. In other words, in some places people actually form a nice neat line starting at the spot where the bus will pull up so that people can board in exactly the order they arrived at the stop. What’s a common phrase for the norm used in such cases? Under what kinds of conditions would you expect strict queuing vs. more nonchalant “standing around”? Can you express the plusses and minuses in terms of deadweight loss and transaction costs?


Q133. College is a more or less four year endeavor but students come and go on different schedules. Sketch a stock and flow model that shows freshwomen applicants coming from the cloud, admitted students from applicants, and freshwomen from the admittees. Then freshwomen become sophomores, mostly, but there is some attrition. And so on through the other years. Sketch a stock and flow diagram that follows students through four years and think up some variables that might affect the flows between the different years. For this problem, you should try wearing the hat of an academic administrator who is interested in the problems of "retention" and "degree completion."


Q385. Explain the following words, terms, phrases found in Engels' "The Origin of the State" excerpt.

gentile constitution (99.3):
plebs (99.4):
mark constitution (99.5)
bondsmen (101.2)
joint-stock company (101.5)
universal suffrage (102.1)
Bonapartism (101.3)
proletariat (101.3)
Prussian Junkers (101.4)


Q406. Attribute and explicate: "…every genuine form of domination implies a minimum of voluntary compliance, that is, an interest in compliance."


Q445. What is the mechanism behind Tocqueville's endorsement of involvement in local politics as a way of building "the social" into citizens?


Q245. Offer a critique of this flow chart diagram

flowchart-bad-01.png

Q332. Your client asks you to design a simple research project that will tell us how long a tube of toothpaste should last. It turns out there is a standard amount of toothpaste that is considered "one use" but that real people are all over the map in terms of the amount they use. We need the answer by the end of the week.


Q57. Facebook Ego Network with Gephi


Q209. Explicate and comment.

The distinction of this kind of order from one which has been made by somebody putting the elements of a set in their places or directing their movements is indispensable for any understanding of the processes of society as well as for all social policy. There are several terms available for describing each kind of order. The made order which we have already referred to as an exogenous order or an arrangement may again be described as a construction, an artificial order or, especially where we have to deal with a directed social order, as an organization. The grown order, on the other hand, which we have referred to as a self-generating or endogenous order, is in English mosts conveniently described as a spontaneous order (Hayek 1976: 142.1-3).


Q470. This is one of a series of problems (469, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands.

One part of the staff report talks about discounting. A resident asks "where do discount rates come from?" Your (BRIEF) answer:


Q477. This is one of a series of problems (469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands.

Earlier in the process, two options were on the table for the community of Ourville. One proposal was for a pocket park that will cost only $10 and is projected to have $50 benefit — a benefit to cost ratio of 5 to 1. The other proposal is a more elaborate park that will cost $50 and have a benefit of $100 — a benefit to cost ratio of 2 to 1. The town budget could afford either project – either one pocket park or one larger park, but not both. What would you recommend and why?


Q271. With reference to cartography, explain what we mean by scale, resolution, simplification/abstraction, representation, point, line, area, volume


Q330. Equilibrium came up many times in this course. Briefly catalog several and describe the concept and its importance. Be sure you can address (1) whether it is a normative concept (2) stable vs. unstable (3) different examples.


Q9. Blank


Q249. Translate each of the flow charts below into everyday English.


Q284. What are "map tiles"? Where do we encounter them? How do they work?


Q158. Suppose the following statements are true about the local housing market.

  1. On a month to month basis, 90% of mortgage payments are on time, 10% are late or missed.
  2. Of all the late/missed payments, 25% are back on track the following month. 65% are late again. 10% go into default.
  3. Of all mortgages in default in a given month, 20% have a work-out and return to good standing. 70% remain in default and 10% move into foreclosure.
  4. Of all houses in foreclosure each month, the banks manage to get 20% back on the market and resold.

Draw the transition diagram and write out the transition matrix.


Q450. Centola, et al. describe a process whereby people collectively "produce" something that is contrary to their individual beliefs/interests/preferences. Thomas Schelling, similarly, described a process whereby socially irrational results emerged from individually rational action. Identify points of similarity and difference, using it as an opportunity to show what you know about the two thinkers' ideas as well as your ability to compare markets and groups as generators of social order.


Q265. Identify graphical elements of a map: border, legend, scalebar, north arrow, author, date, projection, coordinates, data source, data date, title, body of map


Q355. Explain what Marx means by "It is not consciousness that determines life, but life that determines consciousness" (47.7).


Q39. Cohesive subgroups problems


Q188. "Women's issues" have been talked about a lot in the 2012 presidential campaigns. One issue has been the hiring of women in leadership positions in society. Draw a causal loop diagram to represent the following relationships.

The more "gender bias" the fewer qualified women there will be.
More qualified women means more women in positions of power.
The more women in power, the less "gender bias" in society.

Assuming we start with social bias and not many women in positions of power, how is this system likely to behave?

Now let's modify things a bit. Let's suppose we solve the "supply" problem and break the link between bias and the number of qualified women and that the latter grows significantly. We change our model slightly:

Societal bias produces social blindness to existence of qualified women.
This social blindness means fewer women will be in the pool that is considered for positions of power.
The fewer women in the pool, the fewer end up in positions of power.
And, as before, the more (fewer) women in power, the less (more) "gender bias" in society.

Draw this causal model.

Now let's add another causal relation: the fewer women in positions of power, the more NGOs emerge to promote women's participation in government, etc. The NGOs hit on a strategy called that the men in power call "binders of women" — whereby they do the legwork needed to show the men the qualified women that their bias made them blind to.

Add the NGOs and the binders to our causal model. Identify a balancing loop that might portend the achievement of improved gender diversity in positions of power.


14. Fill in the focus column of the table below and try to find an example of each in your file. Write a sentence or two explaining how the example illustrates the focus of this style of social control.

Style Focus Example
Penal
Compensatory
Conciliatory
Therapeutic
Reform
Prevention

Q269. Explain longitude, latitude, parallels, meridians


Q322. Say what's wrong with these flow charts and redraw them correctly.

flowchart-bad-01a.png flowchart-bad-02a.png flowchart-bad-03a.png

Q320. Explain this diagram:

lambert-conic-diagram.png

Q436. At 242.5 Durkheim writes "Poverty protects against suicide because it is a restraint in itself." What does he mean?


Q87. Sketch a flow chart to represent the following scenario. The Alameda County Waste Management Authority (ACWMA) has decided to spend some money on a public relations campaign to increase the level of composting ("green bin") recylcing. Data on hand says that current levels are 4 kg per household of four per week. The plan is to spend $10,000 on advertising each month until the level has gone over 6 kg per week for four weeks in a row.
Prefatory concern – what does 4 kg / household of 4 / week mean? The amount of compost likely depends on the number of people in a household. We don't want to get the numbers wrong by failing to take this into account. So, in our data collection, we double the number for households of 2, halve it for households of 8, etc. Why not just express it as "kg/person/week"? That would work fine mathematically. Perhaps the PR folks had wanted to focus on households (and families) so as to induce a greater sense of collective responsibility.


Q86. Sort clients into four categories promising, troubling, recalcitrant, hopeless on the basis of two tests which can be passed or failed.


Q43. Based on your reading of Erikson, Becker, et al., write a short essay addressing one of the following.

  1. A 50 year old social scientist says "when I was in college, there was no date rape." Explain what a sociologist would mean by this.
  2. Consider the comments below about the experience of a patient in a mental hospital.
  3. Is the medical clarification of heretofore "invisible" disabilities an unqualified good?

Q35. A researcher asks a respondent, Maria, to list her six closest friends. She says A, B, C, D, E, and F. The researcher then asks which of these friends have you had dinner with in the last week? A, C, D. Which ones have you texted today? A, B, D, F. Which ones did you know before you came to this school? C, D. On whose wall have you posted in the last week? D, E, F.

Show how this information would be recorded in your field notes.


Q401. What does Weber mean by legitimacy?


Q384. Hobbes suggests that in a state of "warre" "there is no place for Industry…no culture…no Navigation…no commodious Building…no Knowledge…." (93.9). Explain how this can be translated as "none of the benefits of cooperation."


Q10. It is plausible to assume that the higher the ticket for speeding the fewer people will speed (assuming, for the moment, that there is a fixed likelihood of getting caught). Suppose the following curve represents how we expect drivers react (in the aggregate) to the size of speeding tickets.

driving-deterrence-graph.gif

Which point (A, B, C, D) on the graph reflects the fact that some people will take their chances and speed no matter how high the fines are?

Which point (A, B, C, D) on the graph reflects the fact that some people will observe the speed limit even if there are no tickets for speeding? A B C D

Which has a greater “payoff” in terms of increased compliance: raising the fines from nothing to $25 or raising fines from $125 to $150??

If we think of fines as a sort of utilitarian control, what % of people, according to this model, are "sensitive" or respond to this type of control? 0% 20% 60% 80%

What kind of social control would seem to be at work for the first 20% of the drivers?
coercive utilitarian normative organizational panopticism

Q4.Along with the alternative arrest program, a town is considering a mix of extra community policing, after school programs and evening youth programs as a part of their comprehensive efforts.

Proposals are on the table for three interventions, each of which can be implemented at different levels. Costs and benefits have been calculated by our crack accounting team and are shown in table form and chart form.

cba-mnb-table.gif cba-mnb-chart.gif

Q11. “Zero tolerance” is a popular cry these days, but does it always make sense? It is certainly a powerful symbolic statement, but it presents problems. Consider the diagram below and discuss the idea of zero tolerance in terms of marginal costs and benefits.

zero-tolerance.gif

Q176. Which of the cumulative frequency distributions below corresponds to this frequency distribution

histogram01.gif
A. cumfreq01.gif B. cumfreq02.gif C. cumfreq03.gif
D. cumfreq04.gif E. cumfreq05.gif

Q95. You never know what the weather is going to be around here. Somedays you need a sweater and some days you need sunglasses. The smart person, they say, always brings both. But suppose there is a definite hassle involved in bringing either (e.g., you ride a bike and space is tight). Sketch a decision tree that takes into account a cost to bringing either and a cost to not having either when you need them and the possibility that on a given day you might need one, the other, or both. Use plausible numbers of your own choice.


Q185. Sketch a causal loop diagram for these two systems (be sure to label each link and the overall loop). Comment on the long term equilibrium of this system.

  • Being pro candidate X…
    1. …makes you give money…
    2. …makes the campaign send you emails…
    3. …makes you want to go to a rally…
    4. …makes pro candidate X…
  • Being pro candidate X…
    1. …makes you give money…
    2. …makes the campaign send you emails…
    3. …makes you get fed up with the campaign…
    4. …makes you a little sour on candidate X…
  • Not hearing much from the campaign…
    1. …makes you miss your candidate
    2. …makes you feel more pro candidate X

Q197. Explain and give an example of a dominant strategy in a prisoner's dilemma game.


Q449. What does Hechter mean by "the extensiveness of corporate obligations"?


Q405. Weber says (103.5) that "rule over a considerable number of persons requires a staff…." If you read carefully you will see that the types of "authority" he is talking about refer to the leader's capacity to control and direct the staff as much as to the leader's capacity to dominate "the led." Discuss Weber's types of legitimate domination as forms of maintaining organizational integrity.


Q55. Consider this adjacency matrix. Following standard conventions, calculate in- and out-degree for each vertex.

A B C D E
A - 0 1 0 1
B 0 - 0 1 1
C 0 1 - 1 1
D 0 0 1 - 0
E 0 1 1 1 -

Q232. Durkheim lived in an age when the role and existence of “god” as ultimate source of right and rule and order was under question. Rather than choose between “the human” and “the divine” Durkheim stared religion in the face, so to speak, and showed how what we think of as divine/sacred is in fact human (social). How do the following passages convey Durkheim’s theory of the special power of social norms and his idea about society as god and the notion that the individual, with norms and values of society internalized, can be a source of social order?

Durkheim, “Collective Representations” from Elementary Forms

“An individual or collective subject is said to inspire respect when the representation that expresses it in consciousness has such power that it calls forth or inhibits conduct automatically, irrespective of any utilitarian calculation of helpful or harmful results” (50.8).

“The ways of acting to which society is strongly enough attached to impose them on its members are for that reason marked with a distinguishing sign that calls forth respect” (51.1).

“Because social pressure makes itself felt through mental channels, it was bound to give men the idea that outside him there are one or several powers, moral yet mighty, to which he was subject” (52.1).

“In the midst of an assembly that becomes worked up, we become capable of feelings and conduct of which we are incapable when left to our individual resources” (52.5).


Q303. Show, in QGIS, how to select features individually and by radius, rectangle, etc.


Q390. Explain what Weber means by charismatic authority.


Q275. What do the four digit numbers on this map of the Laurel District most likely represent?
laurel-tracts.png

Q442. Explain what Durkheim is talking about when he suggests that egoism is the opposite of social.


Q264. What is a datum?


Q12. Erikson writes “…the very expression ‘he is a thief’ or ‘he is an addict’ seems to provide at once a description of his position in society and a profile of his character.” How is this relevant for understanding one of the main points of the Rosenhan article?


Q297. With reference to the figures below, describe what the California State Plane System is.

cal_st_plane.pngca_state_plane_CRS_list.png

Q334. Describe, with examples, the policy implications of a theory that has individuals and their shared meanings as the main source of social order.


Q190. An eager campaign volunteer wants to think rationally about where to put her time. She does her research about phone-banking and canvassing and discovers the following.

A full shift (calling hundreds!) at phone banking has a 10% chance of producing 20 votes and a 60% chance of producing 2 votes, 10% chance of producing no votes and a 20% chance of losing 2 votes. Canvassing, by comparison, has a 20% chance of producing 8 votes, 30% chance of producing 4 votes, and a 50% chance of producing no votes. Other things being equal, which would be a better use of her time?


Q414. Explain why the study of the "emergence of cooperation" might be especially relevant in international relations. How does this observation suggest a fundamental limit to the Hobbesian model?


Q76. Sketch a flowchart that represents this bit of logic: If I have anything that is due tomorrow then if I am acing the class already and if I have some money I’ll go out drinking by myself (since all my friends will be busy), but if I don’t have any money I’ll stay home and watch reruns on cable. If, on the other hand, I’m not acing this class, I’ll stay home and study. If I don’t have anything due tomorrow, then if I have some money I’ll see if some friends are around and if so I’ll party with them. Otherwise, I’ll drink alone. If I don’ t have any money I’ll just stay home and watch reruns on cable.


Q339. Ludwik Fleck wrote: "what actually thinks within a person is not the individual himself but his social community" (Hechter & Horne 59.5). Explain what Fleck's theory of thought collectives is all about by explaining what this means.


Q8. Blank


0007. Blank


Q467. (a) Provide an example that illustrates how the IRR criteria can give wrong answer. (b) Provide an example that illustrates how payback period criterion can give the wrong answer. (c) Describe how risk, safety and hedonism might enter into the calculations in discounting problems.


Q348. At 63.2 (in Hechter and Horne reader) Mead says there are two stages in the development of the social self. First the organization of particular attitudes of particular others toward oneself. Second is characterized by "an organization of the social attitudes of the generalized other or the social group…." Although we usually interpret this in terms of the development of a social self in children, we can use it to describe our joining of any new group or social environment. Explain what this means using an example of an individual's socialization into some concrete scene of your own conjuring.


Q362. The theorists whose work was included in the section on individuals and social order each suggest mechanisms for how shared meaning happens through actual social interaction. Describe how each thinker is saying that the picture below is NOT how it happens - that is, we don't just magically have a bunch of social/cultural content in our heads; it gets there through a process, there's a mechanism that we can describe.

If it's later in the course, relate this to life in groups - how is this social content connected to ideas on internalization and socialization of group members?

shared-meaning-painted-by-culture.png

Q441. Explain the scientific logic behind Durkheim's suggestion that the three propositions on suicide varying with integration in religious, domestic, and political society lead to the suggestion that social integration is the property behind the variation in suicide rates.


Q3 What is the expected value of a two dice toss if the payoff is whatever comes up on the dice, in dollars? Sketch this as a decision tree with just chance nodes.


Q227. A gold processor has two sources of gold ore, source A and source B. In order to kep his plant running, at least three tons of ore must be processed each day. Ore from source A costs $20 per ton to process, and ore from source B costs $10 per ton to process. Costs must be kept to less than $80 per day. Moreover, Federal Regulations require that the amount of ore from source B cannot exceed twice the amount of ore from source A. If ore from source A yields 2 oz. of gold per ton, and ore from source B yields 3 oz. of gold per ton, how many tons of ore from both sources must be processed each day to maximize the amount of gold extracted subject to the above constraints? (From Steve Wilson)


Q432. At 240.5 Durkheim talks about social classification (by which he means the way people are sorted into different roles/occupations/classes in society) and about what the basis of these are (and how we accept them or take them for granted - note that this is what Goffman was talking about too in "The Arrangement Between the Sexes.") Why should (or how can) people be content with their lot in life when they are aware that the lots people have are vastly unequal?


Q462. Sketch a logic model for buying a house.


Q77. Draw a flow charts that represents "Do A until B" and "While B do A. Then do C".


Q222. Write out the sample problems on pp 190-2 with explanatory solutions.


Q195. Complete or paraphrase the passage that begins "It is not from the beneficence of the baker…." Who said it? In what context? What does it mean?


Q240. This is an event tree problem, that is, there are no choices to be made. Work out the probabilities of each of the final outcomes.

There is a 72% chance that candidate A will win the presidency over candidate B. There is a 55% chance that candidate A's party will win control of the senate and a 30% chance that his party will win control of the house.


Q331. Studying for an exam could raise a student's grade by a whole letter grade. But it turns out to not be a sure thing. Suppose research has shown that six hours of studying has a 60% chance of increasing your grade by one letter grade, a 25% chance of having no effect, and a 15% chance of actually lowering it by one letter grade (perhaps due to increased anxiety and not enough sleep).
Calculate the expected value of the investment of 6 hours of study time in terms of "letter grades per hour."


Q397. Describe the "resistance culture" of the lads at school.


Q211. Explicate and comment:

To put this differently: in a social order the particular circumstances to which each individual will react will be those known to him. But the individual responses to particular circumstances will result in an overall order only if the individuals obey such rules as will produce and order. Even a very limited similarity in their behavior may be sufficient if the rules which they all obey are such as to produce an order. Such an order will always constitute an adaptation to the multitude of circumstances which are known to all the members of that society taken together but which are not known as a whole to any one person (Hayek 1976: 147.7).


Q83. Weimer & Vining (1989) characterize policy problems in terms of market failure and government failure. Any given problem, they suggest, can be placed in one of four categories: (1) market AND government failure; (2) government works (policy corrects for market failure); (3) market works; (4) government failure to correct for market failure. Their suggested strategy is to start by asking whether there is a market failure and then whether there is government failure. Using the two conditionals, "Is there evidence of market failure?" and "Is there evidence of government failure?" construct a flowchart that would permit you to classify any given situation into one of the four aforementioned categories.


Q105. Following on problem 104, suppose the test is not painless or without its own risks. Suppose the "cost" of the test is 5. And suppose the treatment is also not so nice and the cost of the treatment is 15. But if you have the disease and you are not treated, the results are nasty : 50. Do we have enough information to recommend a course of action? What should we do?


Q300. You have been hired as a consultant to estimate the effects of a new criminal offender registry law that prohibits individuals on the registry from living within 1000 meters of a school. You are asked to

  • Make a map showing all areas that are off-limits to registered offenders
  • Calculate about how much of the city's rental market is off-limits to registered offenders based on this law.

You have

  • a point layer with school locations
  • a street layer
  • a census blockgroup layer with information on number of rental units (or at least renter occupied units as of the last census)

Q47. Use NodeXL to visualize the following networks

Node List
A, B, C, E
B, A, C, F
C, A, D
D, B, E, F
E, B, F
F, A, D, E

Edge List

A, B
A, C
A, E
B, A
C, A
C, B,
C, D
D, B
D, E
D, F
E, F
F, B
F, C
F, D

Full Matrix

A B C D E F
A - 1 0 0 0 1
B - 0 0 1 1
C - 1 1 1
D - 1 0
E - 0
F -


Q439. Freud in "Civilization and Its Discontents" gives us a theory of how conscience arises and functions. In the selection on anomic suicide Durkheim gives an account of conscience as controlling our otherwise potentially infinite (and unsatisfiable) desires. Compare and contrast.


Q394. What does Weber mean by "the routinization of charisma"? (118ff)


Q353. In "Dissecting the Social," Hedstrom suggests that "a statistical analysis is a test of an explanation, not the explanation itself" (13.9). Explain this distinction.


Q175. Consider this data on the thresholds in a population. Draw a frequency histogram and cumulative frequency diagram. Plot the cumulative distribution on a chart with a 45 degree line.

p0175-table-a.gif

Q233. Hobbes sees social order as impossible without hierarchy. Address both the question of coordination and cooperation (to see the cooperation here, we might think about Adam Smith’s notion of bartering as a means by which two actors can both get what they want) as you explain how Hobbes gets from his assumptions about human nature to the need for a “Leviathan” if human-kind is to achieve social order.

Hobbes, from "Leviathan"

“So that in the first place I put for a general inclination of all mankind a perpetual and restless desire of power after power, that ceaseth only in death. And the cause of this is not always that a man hopes for a more intensive delight than he has already attained to, or that he cannot be content with a moderate power; but because he cannot assure the power and means to live well which he hath present, without the acquisition of more” (89).

“Hereby it is manifest that, during the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that condition which is called war, and such a war as is of every man against every man” (93).

“In such condition there is no place for industry, because the fruit thereof is uncertain, and consequently no culture of the earth, no navigation nor use of the commodities that may be imported by sea, no commodious building, no instruments of moving and removing such things as require much force, no knowledge of the face of the earth; no account of time, no arts, no letters, no society, and, which is worst of all, continual fear and danger of violent death, and the life of man solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short” (93-4).

“If a covenant be made wherein neither of the parties perform presently but trust one another, in the condition of mere nature, which is a condition of war of every man against every man, upon any reasonable suspicion, it is void; but, if there be a common power set over them both with right and force sufficient to compel performance, it is not void” (97).


0005.The community is also trying to create a neighborhood resident association. Ten members are recruited each month through posters put up in the community. In addition, each member typically recruits 1 new member every five months (that is, about 0.2 new members per member per month). And finally, attrition seems to run at about 40% per month.

  • What are the "rates"? What are the "amounts"?
  • Write the difference equation in general form (Pn+1=aPn + b)
  • Label the diagram below as fully as you can.
pn%2B1vspn.gif
  • What is the equilibrium value? Is it a stable or unstable equilibrium? How can you tell?
  • Label this chart as fully as possible and then explain what it shows.
pnvst.gif

Q464. (a) Suppose a friend makes the following offer: "I am willing to give you $10 right now, 25$ in 3 years or $200 in ten years." Describe the logic you might use to see which of these is the best deal. Calculate the present value of each opportunity and use the results to sketch a simple decision tree. Assume a discount rate of 5%

(b)If you have the choice between paying a cash price right now or spreading the payments out over 12 months with no interest, which would you choose and why?


Q293. Identify the counties in the greater Bay Area.

bayareacountiesblank.png

Q419. What does Hayek mean by "teleological shorthand"?

The use of “purposive" in this sense as a sort of ‘teleological shorthand’, as it has been called by biologists, is unobjectionable so long as we do not imply an awareness of purpose on the part of the elements, but mean merely that the elements have acquired regularities of conduct conducive to the maintenance of the order — presumably because those who did act in certain ways had within the resulting order a better chance of survival than those who did not." (143.9)


Q248. What criticism would you offer if the diagram below were my first stab at a flow chart for an organizational process? How would you fix it?

flowchart-bad-04.png

Q313. Create a point layer by importing a CSV file containing geographic coordinates.


Q396. Discuss the role of the 'ear'oles in the oppositional ideology of the "lads." Why and in what ways are they important in the lads' concept of self?


Q174. Consider this data on the thresholds in a population. Draw a frequency histogram and cumulative frequency diagram. How does this system behave when the expected number is 10? 20? 50? 60? 90?

p0174-table-a.gif

Q109. Each year the feral cat population grows by 3%. Let Cn be the number of cats n years from now. Assume there are presently 350. Write a difference equation that describes the cat population from year to year.


Q50. What kind of network data might emerge from: tweets, retweets, hashtags? Assume we have powerful access to the Twitter stream (meaning we can grab all the tweets in a given time frame, all the tweets by a set of users, all the tweets that mention a hashtag or a user, etc. And assume we have access to the API and so can take a user name and get a list of who she follows or who follows her.

Describe five different networks we might construct from this data.


Q273. What kind of map is this:

oakland-east-quad-1.jpg

Q171. A common phrase to describe processes in which people engage in imitative behavior is "bandwagon effect." Explain the appropriateness of this metaphor.


Q453.

Q337. In "Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact" Ludwik Fleck starts out with the bold statement that "cognition is the most socially-conditioned activity…." Why is this a bold statement? What conventional assumption is he contradicting at the outset?

Q338. "As an entity [a thought collective] is even more stable and consistent than the so-called individual, who always consists of contradictory drives" (57.8). Explain what Fleck means.

Q339. Ludwik Fleck wrote: "what actually thinks within a person is not the individual himself but his social community" (Hechter & Horne 59.5). Explain wha


Q316. What is Tissot's Indicatrix and what is it used for?


Q430. At 239.4 Durkheim writes, "As a matter of fact, at every moment of history there is a dim perception, in the moral consciousness of societies, of the respective value of different social services [he means jobs, occupations, etc. not social work], the relative reward due to each, and the consequent degree of comfort appropriate on the average to workers in each occupation." Translate this into everyday English.


Q383. Define the following words/phrases as used by Hobbes

felicity (89.3)
laudable actions (90.5)
redound … to their posterity (90.6)
thraldome (90.7)
hope of requitall (90.8)
secret machination (92.2)
Prudence (92.3)
diffidence (92.6)
cattell (93.5)
dommage (93.5)
Cardinall (94.8)
Jus and Lex (95.7)
Covenants (97.7)


Q215. Explicate and comment:

The division of labour, from which so many advantages are derived, is not originally the effect of any human wisdom, which foresees and intends that general opulence to which it gives occasion. It is the necessary, though very slow and gradual consequence of a certain propensity in human nature which has in view no such extensive utility; the propensity to truck, barter, and exchange one thing for another (Smith 1776: 171.8).


Q417. In the context of game theory/prisoner's dilemma, what does "words are cheap" mean?


Q70. If social order equals coordination and cooperation, provide some illustrations that support the authors' contention that "the problem of social order underlies questions of central concern to sociologists in substantive areas as diverse as crime and deviance, social movements, organizations, politics, religion, international relations, and the family" (xiii.1). Use this an opportunity to show you can distinguish cooperation and coordination and in general "get" the course. Perhaps add a category or two of your own.


Q66. The chart below could easily figure in an argument that the death penalty does not deter murder. It shows that since 1990 the murder rate per 100,000 population has been higher in states WITH the death penalty than in those without it.

What is an obvious "correlation is not causation" counter-argument?

murder-rate-vs-death-penalt.gif

Q388. Explain what Weber means by legal authority.


Q114. A totalitarian country that prohibits migration has a birth rate b and a death rate d. How does the population change from one year to the next?

We can interpret "birth rate" or "death rate" in two ways — as a rate, for example, deaths per 100 people — or as an absolute number, for example, 5 people per year. In general, we will mean the former.

Let $P_{i}$ be the population in year i. Write an expression for the population in year i+1. If the population in a given year is 100 and birth rate, b, is 5% and the death rate, d, is 6%, write out the population for the next 5 years.


Q326. (A) Consider this plot of Pn+1 vs. Pn. Without worrying about what sort of system it might be, show that you understand how the chart works by describing the behavior of this system if it starts at time i at Pi=30. How about 70?

PNvPN%2B1chart.png

(B) If this is a model of attendance at, say, a protest rally with the axes representing percentage of the population, and Pn is how many showed up last week (a number everyone knows) and Pn+1 is how many that means we can expect this week (based on the distribution of individual thresholds - how many people need to be going for me to decide to go), how would you interpret the gaps A and B on the chart?

(C) Think about the "standing ovation model." What features does it add to the basic model described here.


Q386. "…the state arose from the need to keep class antagonisms in check…." Attribute and explain.


Q325. Have a look at the paper shown below about immunization in Uganda. Look especially at the causal loop diagrams on pages 102(146) and 103(147). Explain what is going on in each of the labeled/shaded loops. In some cases, there might be a sign missing. Based on your reading of the diagrams, supply these and explain.

R1:

B1:

B2:

immunization01.png

Q132. Create both a causal loop and a stock and flow diagram for a thermostat, heater, and house. The house is a stock of air. When its temperature goes below some threshold, hot air is added. All along though, hot air is subtracted (or cold air is added) through leaky windows and the like. But the temperature does not change immediately upon introduction of the hot air. What are the challenges of modeling this phenomenon discretely and how can we solve them?


Q166. Consider a one dimensional cellular automata that looks like this:
Generation 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Generation 2

Show what the next few generations would look like subject to "rule 93":

Rule 93
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1
0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1

Q279. Explain these acronyms: SQL, WMS, WGS84


Q74. Sketch a flowchart that represents this bit of logic: “if the balance is less than the minimum alternative payment then just pay the balance, otherwise, pay the minimum alternative payment.”


Q113. Sketch a causal loop diagram for this system (be sure to label each link and the overall loop). Comment on the long term equilibrium of this system.

  • Being happy…
    1. …makes you to smile…
    2. …makes people approach you…
    3. …makes you feel social…
    4. …makes you happy…

Q120. My bathtub fills at 10 gallons per minute. It has a leak, though, whereby it loses 10% of it's volume per minute. It's a neat rectangular tub in which each 10 gallons is 2 inches of depth. How does it behave over time?


Q285. Name a few suppliers of map tiles.


Q159. Implement the model from problem 158 using this Excel spreadsheet.


Q102. Kids these days! Of those who get into trouble, it turns out, about 30% are "real trouble-makers" who need some help. The other 70% are normal adolescents who will age out of their trouble-making under normal care. A social worker friend introduces you to a test that you can give to kids who are referred to you to determine which category they are in. Research has suggested the test is 75% accurate. Use tree flipping to describe what to make of the test's results.


Q261. Explain these acronyms: DMS, EPSG, CRS


Q399. Identify and elaborate on three ways in which the shopfloor culture described by Willis parallels the counter-school culture he talks about.

(for final exam) Bring the phenomena Willis describes into conversation with material from the "groups" section of the course. What mechanisms described in that section might illuminate the lads' oppositional culture or shop floor culture?


Q243. Consider the following instructions for funding your NGO and then draw a flow chart representing this logic

Write the grant. Find a funder. Submit the grant. Wait to see if it is funded. If it is funded, start the project. Otherwise go back to finding a funder.


Q389. Explain what Weber means by traditional authority.


Q205. Suppose the agents in a population have four behaviors - W, X, Y, Z - and that each behavior is either present or absent. When two agents meet they may have all the same behaviors, none of the same behaviors, or 1 or 2 behaviors in common. Suppose the probability of interaction is proportional to their similarity. IF they do interact, they flip a coin and who ever wins gets imitated by the other agent.

Use the two random number tables below (the left table for doing a Monte Carlo simulation of whether interaction occurs and the left table to determine which agent is the leader and which is the follower) to work out the next state n the grid below, determine the probability of interaction between each pair of neighbors (assume no diagonal interaction for now)

69 72 43 97 87 0 0 0 1 1
37 86 35 23 41 1 1 0 0 1
88 36 94 60 60 1 1 1 0 0
84 26 3 87 12 0 0 1 1 0
8 10 56 52 29 1 1 1 0 0
26 5 30 15 58 0 1 1 1 1
95 3 95 18 69 0 0 1 0 0
71 42 55 64 21 0 0 1 1 0
68 75 90 19 64 0 0 1 1 0
75 13 77 1 89 0 0 0 0 0
A
1110
B
1010
C
0010
D
1001
E
0000
F
1111
G
1001
H
1011
I
1000
J
1000
K
1110
L
0000
M
0010
N
1100
O
0100
P
0111

Q246. What's wrong with this flow chart? How would you fix it?

flowchart-bad-02.png

Q244. This question extends problem 243. You've learned the following things during your professional training. Represent this information as a three level stepwise refinement.

  1. Preparing to write a grant consists of identifying a need and putting together a logic model that shows what new inputs are needed to generate desired outcomes
  2. Finding a funder requires identifying a list of funders, looking up the kinds of projects they are funding, and finding matches for your project
  3. Writing a grant involves (1) preparing to write the grant; (2) finding template appropriate to particular funders; (3) producing drafts and reviewing with staff
  4. Draft and review protocols vary, but one you like is to produce a draft, post it on Google docs for the team to comment on, send a prodding email to team members every few days until it looks like there are no more comments on that draft, make revisions and repeat this process until the deadline is near.

Q65. Consider the document, "Plagiarism: Deterrence, Detection and Prevention" (a teaching manual for economics and business) by Jeremy B. Williams as an artifact. How would you classify the strategies for plagiarism prevention that it describes?


Q387. Explain the following words/terms as used in Weber's excerpt on types of legitimate domination:

wertrationale (103.6)
material interests (103.6)
charismatic (104.4)
abstract rules (105.2)
impersonal order (105.3)
rationally delimited jurisdiction (105.5)
[absence of] "appropriation of his official position by the incumbent" (106.4)
office (106.7)
plebiscite (106.9)
administrative staff (107.2)
monocracy (107.4)
"principle of appointment" (108.5)
"red tape" (109.7)
dilettantism (109.8)
levelling (111.4)
sine ira et studio (111.5) - See Wikipedia
formalism (111.8)
utilitarian expediency (112.7)
patrimonial (113.4) - See Wikipedia
prebendal (114.6)
formal system of rules (116.7)
routinization of charisma (118.7)


Q299. What is the California CRS zone for Oakland and the Bay Area? What units is it in? What datum is it based on?


Q257. (a) Explain the equations for common pool resource problems as discussed in Lecture 17.4: "Collective Action and Common Pool Resource Problems":

$x_j$ : amount consumed by person j

$X$ : total consumed

Amount available next period: $C_{T+1} = (C_T - X)^2$

(b) Propose values of these variables that would result in a steady state equilibrium value of the resource.