Q400. Willis' Learning to Labour is often cited as an example of the social science concept of the "reproduction of social class." Explain what that phrase means to you after reading the excerpt from Willis' book.

Q433. Discuss how one might be "content" with one's inequality in a society where:

  • status is based on heredity
  • a program is in place to give everyone an equal start (imagine whatever's needed for this)
  • a strictly equal opportunity meritocratic society
  • a society with every imaginable balancing of privilege

Q473. This is one of a series of problems (469, 470, 471, 472, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands.

Two options are on the table for the community of Ourville. Either option will cost $100. Option A — the West Park – provides $80 of benefits (total) to families who live close to the west park location and $52 (total) to families who live farther away on the east side of town. Option B – the East Park – provides $40 to the first group of families and $110 to the second group. What do you recommend and why?


Q3 What is the expected value of a two dice toss if the payoff is whatever comes up on the dice, in dollars? Sketch this as a decision tree with just chance nodes.

Q411. What is Axelerod's fundamental question in "The Evolution of Cooperation"? It has four parts.

Q281. Explain these acronyms: AAG, ABAG, BART

Q190. An eager campaign volunteer wants to think rationally about where to put her time. She does her research about phone-banking and canvassing and discovers the following.

A full shift (calling hundreds!) at phone banking has a 10% chance of producing 20 votes and a 60% chance of producing 2 votes, 10% chance of producing no votes and a 20% chance of losing 2 votes. Canvassing, by comparison, has a 20% chance of producing 8 votes, 30% chance of producing 4 votes, and a 50% chance of producing no votes. Other things being equal, which would be a better use of her time?

Q235. Schelling’s piece, “Micromotives, Macrobehaviors,” is included because it demonstrates some specific conditions under which market interactions may lead to coordination but not cooperation. What are his two examples and what are the conditions that can affect whether market interactions lead to cooperation? Explain the role they play, perhaps using our class chairs and offices simulation as a point of reference, in limiting the optimism of Smith and Hayek for markets as a source of social order.

Q218. Explicate and comment:

The result was another victory for TIT FOR TAT! The analysis of the data from these tournaments reveals four properties which tend to make a decision rule successful: avoidance of unnecessary conflict by cooperating as long as the other player does, provocability in the face of an uncalled for defection by the other, forgiveness after responding to a provocation, and clarity of behavior so that the other player can adapt to your pattern of action.

These results from the tournaments demonstrate that under suitable conditions, cooperation can indeed emerge in a world of egoists without central authority (Axelrod 1984: 184.5).

Q171. A common phrase to describe processes in which people engage in imitative behavior is "bandwagon effect." Explain the appropriateness of this metaphor.

Q199. In the November 2012 general elections some sitting members of congress and the senate failed in their re-election effort and some opted not to run for re-election. After the election we describe those who are still in office but won't be in January as "lame ducks." Drawing on theoretical ideas and empirical ideas in the work of Robert Axelrod, make some predictions of how the dynamics of voting and deal making might be different during a lame duck session.

Q186. Our neighborhood Obama for America committee is an active one. It's so active that it wears people out. Over the course of the campaign it tends to recruit 4 new people every week but it also loses about 10% of its membership due to fatigue each week. The committee began in June with 6 members. Write the difference equations that describe the size of the committee (S) each week. What's the long term prognosis?

Q10. It is plausible to assume that the higher the ticket for speeding the fewer people will speed (assuming, for the moment, that there is a fixed likelihood of getting caught). Suppose the following curve represents how we expect drivers react (in the aggregate) to the size of speeding tickets.


Which point (A, B, C, D) on the graph reflects the fact that some people will take their chances and speed no matter how high the fines are?

Which point (A, B, C, D) on the graph reflects the fact that some people will observe the speed limit even if there are no tickets for speeding? A B C D

Which has a greater “payoff” in terms of increased compliance: raising the fines from nothing to $25 or raising fines from $125 to $150??

If we think of fines as a sort of utilitarian control, what % of people, according to this model, are "sensitive" or respond to this type of control? 0% 20% 60% 80%

What kind of social control would seem to be at work for the first 20% of the drivers?
coercive utilitarian normative organizational panopticism

Q84. If the weather is nice, plant a garden. Otherwise paint the office. For the garden, make a decision between flowers and vegetables. If you go for vegetables, buy compost, seeds, and stakes; till the soil, and hook up the irrigation. If it's flowers this year, go to the garden store and if they have 4 inch plants buy enough for the plot and plant them. If they don't then get flats of smaller plants and bring them home and let them get acclimated for a week and then plant them next week. To till the soil, if the ox is healthy, do it with the animal plow, otherwise get out the rototiller.

Q459. What, to your mind, was the best article of the course - the one you really understood or that really clicked for you or that you've taken to explaining to friends and family it's so awesome. Describe it in a manner that shows the depth of your understanding.

Q412. Explain the basic idea of the prisoner's dilemma.

Q12. Erikson writes “…the very expression ‘he is a thief’ or ‘he is an addict’ seems to provide at once a description of his position in society and a profile of his character.” How is this relevant for understanding one of the main points of the Rosenhan article?

Q198. What is "tit-for-tat" and why, according to Robert Axelrod, is it so effective?

Q96. A college enrolls two types of students. Full-pay students pay $40K tuition and half-pay students pay $20K. At present the school spends $1 million per year to recruit 200 students about 75% of whom are half-pay and 25% full-pay. A consultant submits a proposal to shift resources around and use GIS to target recruitment at zip codes that are more likely to yield full-pay students. She says there is a 75% chance that the results will be a slightly smaller class (190) but one with 40% full-pay and 60% half-pay. Unfortunately there is also a risk things won't turn out so well. There's a 25% chance that enrollment will drop to 170 and only 30% will be full pay. Use a decision tree to advise the college as to its best course of action.

Q261. Explain these acronyms: DMS, EPSG, CRS

Q114. A totalitarian country that prohibits migration has a birth rate b and a death rate d. How does the population change from one year to the next?

We can interpret "birth rate" or "death rate" in two ways — as a rate, for example, deaths per 100 people — or as an absolute number, for example, 5 people per year. In general, we will mean the former.

Let $P_{i}$ be the population in year i. Write an expression for the population in year i+1. If the population in a given year is 100 and birth rate, b, is 5% and the death rate, d, is 6%, write out the population for the next 5 years.

Q448. Why is the Tocqueville selection in the "groups as a source of social order" section of the text?

Q420. Explain why Paul Willis' "Learning to Labour" was a reading in the hierarchy section of this course.

Q104. House gets another case. There's this funny rash. We won't say where it appears, but it's a funny rash. In 1% of the cases, it means something really, really bad — anxoreisis. Fortunately, there's a test. Unfortunately, it's not a perfect test. Fortunately, it's a pretty good test. Unfortunately, it is wrong 2% of the time. Work it out.

Q211. Explicate and comment:

To put this differently: in a social order the particular circumstances to which each individual will react will be those known to him. But the individual responses to particular circumstances will result in an overall order only if the individuals obey such rules as will produce and order. Even a very limited similarity in their behavior may be sufficient if the rules which they all obey are such as to produce an order. Such an order will always constitute an adaptation to the multitude of circumstances which are known to all the members of that society taken together but which are not known as a whole to any one person (Hayek 1976: 147.7).

Q196. Explain this table:


Q263. Explain/illustrate the idea of 1+1=3.

Q44. Media analysis of SOPA wars.

Q465. A used car costs 10,000. A comparable new car costs 20,000. Owners of new cars can expect to pay nothing per year in maintenance for ten years. Owners of used cars pay $1000 per year in maintenance. How do the costs compare over ten years? Assume a 7% discount rate.

Q90. Convert the following statement to “pseudo-Excel” formulas (follow the example to see what we mean by that).
Example. "If it is Tuesday, this must be Belgium, otherwise it is France" would become something like

= if(day="Tuesday","Belgium","France")

If the calculated payment is less than the alternative minimum monthly payment then pay the alternative monthly minimum unless it is more than the remaining balance in which case just pay the balance off. Otherwise pay the calculated payment.

Q202. (a) Set up the issue of whether to use the metric system or the English system of weights and measures as a coordination game. (b) Identify any equilibria and whether they are efficient or not. (c) If we are in the English/English cell, describe both players' motivations to unilaterally switch to metric. (d) what if we were in the metric/English cell?

Q256. Consider the collective action model described in Lecture 17.4: Collective Action and Common Pool Resource Problems where $x_j$ is the cost to me to "pitch in" and do my part in some collective effort. Each member of the collective reaps benefits from the contributions of those who decide to pitch in. In particular, they receive some fraction $\beta$ of all the contributions. Their net benefit is thus, this amount minus the effort they contribute. In other words,

\begin{align} Payoff_j = -x_j + \beta \sum x_i \end{align}

Suppose you are in a class of 21 students and everyone is expected to prepare for class in a manner that costs 1 unit of life. In the class itself, things go much better when people are prepared and we estimate that the benefit a student derives from the class is equal to 0.2 units of life for each person who comes prepared.

(a) What is your net payoff if you do the reading half the class rest of the class comes prepared too?
(b) What is the benefit to a shirker under the same conditions?
(c) How many people do you need to think are going to do the reading to make it worth it to do the reading?

Q320. Explain this diagram:


Q441. Explain the scientific logic behind Durkheim's suggestion that the three propositions on suicide varying with integration in religious, domestic, and political society lead to the suggestion that social integration is the property behind the variation in suicide rates.

Q29. Consider the series below showing the maximum number of edges (m) possible in networks with different numbers of vertices (n). Come up with a general formula for m in terms of n (that is, for a network with n vertices, what is the maximum number of edges — assuming no self-edges and no multi-edges?).


Q229. Bob builds tool sheds. He uses 10 sheets of dry wall and 15 studs for a small shed and 15 sheets of dry wall and 45 studs for a large shed. He has available 60 sheets of dry wall and 135 studs. If Bob makes $390 profit on a small shed and $520 on a large shed, how many of each type of building should Bob build to maximize his profit? (From solution here)

Q33. Practice Gephi exercises.


Q470. This is one of a series of problems (469, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands.

One part of the staff report talks about discounting. A resident asks "where do discount rates come from?" Your (BRIEF) answer:

Q203. Group these examples of coordination games and explain.

  1. do we store the ketchup in the fridge or in the cabinet?
  2. smokers should marry smokers and non-smokers should marry non-smokers
  3. cat people and dog people and dating
  4. people's sense of what constitutes rudeness
  5. infidelity is never OK, infidelity is OK in certain circumstances
  6. Erring on the side of caution; nothing ventured, nothing gained
  7. Every woman for herself; Let's work as a team.

17. Coser described several theorists whose work looked at "social control from the inside." What's the "technical term" for "social control from the inside"? Name three of these theorists and provide some identifying information (e.g., "Tongan psychotherapist who wrote in 1920s").

Q72. Sketch a flowchart that represents this bit of logic: “if you are a woman then if you are over 40 you should have this test no matter what but if either parent had diabetes women should have the test no matter what. Men only need to take the test if they are overweight.”

Q376. In the context of Engels, what is a class? What are the main classes under feudalism? Capitalism?

Q344. Cohen and Vandello offer a number of supporting findings in their work on culture of honor violence in the American south. Explain what's going on in each of these four summary tables and how this fits in with their analysis.

cohen-vandello-03-table.png cohen-vandello-04-table.png
cohen-vandello-05-table.png cohen-vandello-06-table.png

Q371. A storyboard is a technique for graphically organizing the telling of a story. Think about how you would explain Kanazawa's description of evolutionary biology and its connection to our thinking about the basis for social order. Imagine how you would represent the theory visually and how you would explain it textually.


Q443. Define:
supra-physical (234.5)
raison d'être (234.7)
(instinct) acquits (itself) (234.8)
(collective) asthenia (236.2)

Q38. Homophily Problems

Q290. What kind of map is this and what is it used for?

Q108. You are a small non-profit. Your sole funder says that each year it will double what you have as your balance at the end of the year. Each year you project spending 20,000 for programs. Ignore interest. Write difference equations describing your balance (B).

What special situations can you imagine we might get into? What, for example, happens if B0=$32,000? What happens if it is 50,000? 40,000?

Q364. Thinking back to the Kanazawa article on evolutionary biology, use this diagram to talk about at least six different ideas from this course.


Q107. Our neighborhood association has a ten member board. Each year it plans to add four members. Write the difference equations that describe the size of the board (S) each year.

Q112. Sketch a causal loop diagram representing this logic:
Being sad…

  1. …makes you frown…
  2. …which makes people avoid you…
  3. …which makes you lonely…
  4. …which makes you sad…

Q93. A new device at your favorite big box store costs $200. It has a one year guarantee from the manufacturer. The cashier offers you a special deal on a three year replacement warranty (assume it's good, will be honored, etc.) — $40. You estimate that the chances of the device failing during second and third years is 25% and that the price of replacement by then will be $150. Should you buy the service plan? What are the parameters of this decision model?

Q419. What does Hayek mean by "teleological shorthand"?

The use of “purposive" in this sense as a sort of ‘teleological shorthand’, as it has been called by biologists, is unobjectionable so long as we do not imply an awareness of purpose on the part of the elements, but mean merely that the elements have acquired regularities of conduct conducive to the maintenance of the order — presumably because those who did act in certain ways had within the resulting order a better chance of survival than those who did not." (143.9)

Q75. Sketch a flowchart that represents this bit of logic: “If you can get a direct flight for under $1500 take it unless it leaves from SFO before 9 am. Otherwise, see if anything is available on frequent flier miles no matter what the routing. If you can’t find anything, use Expedia to find the cheapest flight out of OAK.”

Q95. You never know what the weather is going to be around here. Somedays you need a sweater and some days you need sunglasses. The smart person, they say, always brings both. But suppose there is a definite hassle involved in bringing either (e.g., you ride a bike and space is tight). Sketch a decision tree that takes into account a cost to bringing either and a cost to not having either when you need them and the possibility that on a given day you might need one, the other, or both. Use plausible numbers of your own choice.

Q405. Weber says (103.5) that "rule over a considerable number of persons requires a staff…." If you read carefully you will see that the types of "authority" he is talking about refer to the leader's capacity to control and direct the staff as much as to the leader's capacity to dominate "the led." Discuss Weber's types of legitimate domination as forms of maintaining organizational integrity.

Q408. Show what you know about Willis' lads' world by doing a compare and contrast with a contemporary phenomenon like "gutter punk."

Q296. (1) Read this thematic map. (2) Offer a critique of its graphic design.

Q207. Convert the following logic into a set of step-by-step instructions in a manner that uses stepwise refinement.

To execute coordination we proceed as follows. Each agent will consider in turn its north, east, south, and west neighbors. First the agent determines whether interaction will take place at all based on similarity. Then, if they do interact, they flip a coin to decide who is the leader and who is the follower. Then the follower copies the traits of the leader. And then onto the next neighbor if there is one.

We can incorporate the following design decisions into our model: (1) neighbors who have already interacted in a given round do not do so again; (2) an agent can change multiple times during a given round; (3) all interactions are with the agent's current state.

Q255. Work through the section on direct reciprocity in Nowak and Sigmund, "How Populations Cohere."

Q442. Explain what Durkheim is talking about when he suggests that egoism is the opposite of social.

Q110. Each year the feral cat population grows by 3%. Let Cn be the number of cats n years from now. Assume there are presently 350. Suppose that each year we catch and euthanize or place in homes 20 cats. Write the equations for this situation.

Q477. This is one of a series of problems (469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands.

Earlier in the process, two options were on the table for the community of Ourville. One proposal was for a pocket park that will cost only $10 and is projected to have $50 benefit — a benefit to cost ratio of 5 to 1. The other proposal is a more elaborate park that will cost $50 and have a benefit of $100 — a benefit to cost ratio of 2 to 1. The town budget could afford either project – either one pocket park or one larger park, but not both. What would you recommend and why?

Q416. Explain what we mean by distinguishing a one-shot PD from an iterated PD and why this is important.

Q404. Give a summary of the developmental story Engels tells in "The Origin of the State." Be sure your answer makes connections to the course and to our discussion of hierarchy as a source of order.

Q282. Explain these acronyms: USGS, NOAA, NASA

Q231. A transport company has two types of trucks, Type A and Type B. Type A has a refrigerated capacity of 20 m3 and a non-refrigerated capacity of 40 m3 while Type B has the same overall volume with equal sections for refrigerated and non-refrigerated stock. A grocer needs to hire trucks for the transport of 3,000 m3 of refrigerated stock and 4 000 m3 of non-refrigerated stock. The cost per kilometer of a Type A is $30, and $40 for Type B. How many trucks of each type should the grocer rent to achieve the minimum total cost?


A school district has two types of lower division schools, type A and type B. Type A school buildings have capacity for 200 little kids and 400 big kids. Type B buildings have capacity for 300 little kids and 300 big kids. Next year the district expects enrollments of 3000 little kids and 4000 big kids. Type A buildings cost 30,000 per year to maintain while type B buildings cost 40,000. What mix of school buildings will allow the district to handle the expected enrollment at the lowest maintenance cost? (From VITutor)

Q436. At 242.5 Durkheim writes "Poverty protects against suicide because it is a restraint in itself." What does he mean?

Q475. This is one of a series of problems (469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 476, 477, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands.

Activists in Ourville force the city not to think of this as an either/or proposition. Experts are consulted and the following cost benefit information is obtained. Council allocates $200 for the parks project. How do you recommend they proceed and why? What kind of problem is this? How big should each park be?


Q194. Who wrote about the "invisible hand" and what does it mean for us?

Q139. Wordsmith the following passage from the first paragraph of a paper about Erving Goffman's Presentation of Self in Everyday Life.

In Presentation of Self, Erving Goffman states that a front is "that part of the individual's performance which regularly functions in a general and fixed fashion to define the situation for those who observe the performance" (p.22). In other words, you need to have an image of how you want people to see you at a certain point in time.

Q189. Our campaign wants to hold a giant rally the Sunday before the election. Many voters are fired up, many are tired. Some think we can win, others not so sure. Suppose the ready-to-jump-on-the-bandwagon threshold distribution is shown below. The numbers here mean how many people are willing to come to the rally given different levels of expected participation.

Analyze this information and describe the direction our organizing strategy should go. What should we expect? How much intervention could produce how much of a desired result. Assume that our current research suggests about 40 people are currently planning on going to next week's event.

Threshold Count
0 12
10 3
20 4
30 5
40 6
50 9
60 13
70 17
80 19
90 6
100 0

Q323. What flow chart concept does this diagram illustrate? Explain what it means and how we use it. Draw the series of flow charts implied by this diagram.


Q361. In the public goods game described by Fehr and Gintis, explain why we impose a cost on the punishER for each punishment issued. What does willingness to impose a punishment despite a cost suggest about the actor who does so?

14. Fill in the focus column of the table below and try to find an example of each in your file. Write a sentence or two explaining how the example illustrates the focus of this style of social control.

Style Focus Example

Q125. Write an equation for the line passing through the points (3,2) and (0,5).

Q25. Use NodeXL to reproduce the organizational chart below. Take note of the appearance of the network with various layout options. Try changing the type to "directed" in the chart panel of the NodeXL ribbon. What do you say about organizational charts as networks from examining the different layouts?

President VP1
President VP2
VP1 Mgr1
VP1 Mgr2
VP2 Staff1
Mgr2 Staff2
Mgr2 Staff3
Mgr2 Staff4

Q123. Suppose I am sitting on $20,000 and I am trying to figure out whether or not to use it to buy a car. I have a very limited life and have determined that if I buy the car I will have to pay $800 insurance and about 10 cents per mile to operate it and I drive 2500 miles per year. If I own a car I'll drive rather than take the bus on approximately 300 local commutes (saving $1000 and 150 hours net). My time is worth $50 per hour. An alternative would be to put the $20,000 into an investment vehicle (so to speak) that would pay me 7.5% annually.

Q101. If the farmer plants early and the spring is warm, she can get a 20% increase in her harvest. But if she plants early and there's a late frost she can lose 50% of her harvest. Historically, these late frosts happen one year in four (25% of the time). Use a decision tree to determine how much she would be willing to invest in a perfect forecast.

Q150. Consider this passage and draft explication1. Work through it and suggest how you might improve it.

Text Explication
In "The Production of Consciousness," Marx (1845-1846) writes,“Men can be distinguished from the animals by consciousness, by religion, or by whatever one wants. They begin to distinguish themselves from the animals as soon as they begin to produce their means of life, a step which is determined by their physical organisation. In producing their means of life they indirectly produce their material life itself” (46). In other words, Marx is saying that the difference between a human being and an animal is that human beings have consciousness and work and contribute to production that allow them to produce their means of life; therefore, work is essential to humans’ interactions.

Q94. Assuming you are self-interested, what makes more sense: buy a $1.00 lottery ticket with a 1 in five million chance of winning a million dollars, buying a twenty dollar raffle ticket for a local fundraiser with a 1 in 2500 chance of winning a $500 jackpot, or playing a $1 stake game of rock-scissors-paper with the person next to you.

24. Donald Black described 6 styles of social control – penal, conciliatory, therapeutic, compensatory, prevention, and reform. Show that you understand what these are and how they fit into this course by considering the different styles of social control that might be employed in conflicts that could emerge between employee and employer or in the workplace in general..

Q321.: Our consulting firm, NGOsRus, has developed a new organizational assay protocol to help characterize the financial health of community organizations. We have tested the instrument on many organizations whose financial well-being has been determined by other, much more expensive means. Here's what we know:

Healthy organizations pass the test 80% of the time but fail it 20% of the time. Unhealthy organizations fail the test 88% of the time but pass 12% of the time.

How likely is it that an organization that passes the test is, in fact, in good state financially?

Essay Question
The thinkers and theories we have briefly visited have taken a number of basic starting points: people basically good, bad, mixed; people never change; a small defect defines the entire person; biology is destiny. What’s your take on human nature? What kind of a thing is a person for the purposes of thinking about social control? Which readings or thinkers do you feel you line up with? Which ones do you seem to reject?

Q392. Weber suggests that bureaucratic domination is marked by "the dominance of a spirit of formalistic impersonality" (111.45). Explain.

Q282. Explain these acronyms: BG, CT, XML, CRAP

Q39. Cohesive subgroups problems

Q69. Define "coordination" and give five examples of coordination problems that you dealt with today.

Q222. Write out the sample problems on pp 190-2 with explanatory solutions.

Q180. Which of the cumulative frequency distributions below corresponds to this frequency distribution

A. cumfreq01.gif B. cumfreq02.gif C. cumfreq03.gif
D. cumfreq04.gif E. cumfreq05.gif

Q434. On p241 Durkheim talks about the anomy (disruption) caused by economic disaster (a person losing everything, say, or sudden drop in a set of people's economic circumstances as when a local industry closes and everyone loses jobs) OR when sudden wealth comes (again, to an individual or to a community or group). Explain what Durkheim sees happening and how it's the same process in both situations.

Q407. Weber's definition, please:


Q78. Sketch a flow chart that represents the following writing protocol: (1) Edit your essay until it is perfect. (2) While the essay still needs work, edit your essay.

Q245. Offer a critique of this flow chart diagram


Q414. Explain why the study of the "emergence of cooperation" might be especially relevant in international relations. How does this observation suggest a fundamental limit to the Hobbesian model?

Q91. Sketch flow chart that captures logic of the following process.

Organization consists of intake personnel, counselors, followup social workers, and clerical staff.

When a new client contacts the organization intake personnel determine which of four types of case it is by asking two questions. If a client is returning having already been "typed" she is sent to the appropriate waiting room. Types 1 and 3 are referred to counselor A, type 2 to counselor B, type 4 to counselor C.
Client goes to waiting room until counselor is free. Sessions take 1 hour so the wait can be long. If more than one person waiting client is advised to go away and come back later.
In session, if the client is over 18 they get treatment protocol 1 otherwise they get treatment protocol 2.

Q122. The most basic opportunity cost incurred when undertaking a project is the simple value of investing the money instead of spending it. A first step toward figuring out what that cost is is understanding compound interest. Show what happens to $1000 if the annual interest rate is 5%.

Q375. Hobbes and Engels both give us a vision of the state. Hechter and Horne suggest that "Instead of a world made up of equal individuals, Engels's starting point is a society made up of unequal classes." Show what you know about Hobbes and Engels but explaining this statement.

Q452. Develop a summary diagram for the entire course. Some examples of the genre from a social control class in solutions.

Q77. Draw a flow charts that represents "Do A until B" and "While B do A. Then do C".

Q242. Draw a flowchart that represents the following protocol for enjoying a Saturday afternoon.

If it is sunny, go to the beach. If it is not sunny go to the movies.
If you go to the beach, if you are by yourself, take an umbrella and a good book. If you are with friends, take a bottle of wine and some nice cheese.
If you go to the movies alone, buy a monster popcorn and sit right up front. If you go with friends, be more restrained with the snacks and sit midway back.
Have a nice dinner afterwards.

Q272. Explain/illustrate what these geoprocessing operations do: clip, intersection, union, difference, buffer, convex hull, symmetric difference.

Q113. Sketch a causal loop diagram for this system (be sure to label each link and the overall loop). Comment on the long term equilibrium of this system.

  • Being happy…
    1. …makes you to smile…
    2. …makes people approach you…
    3. …makes you feel social…
    4. …makes you happy…

Q195. Complete or paraphrase the passage that begins "It is not from the beneficence of the baker…." Who said it? In what context? What does it mean?

Q370. A storyboard is a technique for graphically organizing the telling of a story. Think about how you would explain Cohen and Vandello's work on violence and cultures of honor as an illustration of theories of how the human individual is a vehicle for the generation of social order. Imagine how you would represent the theory visually and how you would explain it textually.


Q48. Convert the information below - data on four organizations, listing the members of their boards of directors - into a network data format and then use a network visualization program to show the 2 mode network laid out nicely with nodes labeled.

Acme Association Boothwyn Foundation The Cannalo Organization Dynamic Educational Consulting
Allen Allen Barb Chris
Barb Ethan Chris Dante
Chris Fran Ethan Ethan
Dante Gent Fran Kelly
Harri Ishtar Lori
Jack Miguel

Q287. Download this zip file, open the QGIS workspace inside, produce a map that looks like this:
and post it to a wiki page.

Q132. Create both a causal loop and a stock and flow diagram for a thermostat, heater, and house. The house is a stock of air. When its temperature goes below some threshold, hot air is added. All along though, hot air is subtracted (or cold air is added) through leaky windows and the like. But the temperature does not change immediately upon introduction of the hot air. What are the challenges of modeling this phenomenon discretely and how can we solve them?

Q111. Let's say we have a 2 year graduate program. The first year class is growing at a rapid rate 5% per year. Between the first and second years, 25% of the students change their minds or get jobs and leave the program. Among the second years, 10% leave before graduation. The program currently has 20 first year and 12 second year. Write difference equations to describe population in future years.

Q317. Match the name with the projection.
South Polar Azimuthal | Mercator | Albers Equal Area Conic | Mollweide | Lambert Conformal Conic | North Polar Azimuthal
albersequalareaconic0.png mercator0.png Mollweide0.png
northpolarazimuthal0.png southpolarazimuthal0.png lambertconformal0.png

Q167. Suppose we have a diffusion process in which all susceptibles who are in contact with an infected in a given time period become infected in the next time period. On the grids below color in squares to indicate what happens over the first six time periods beginning with one infected. Then fill in the table and chart the data.


Q410. Show what you know about Schelling's "micromotives macrobehavior" models by explaining this diagram.


Q57. Facebook Ego Network with Gephi

Q429. Briefly explain Freud's theory of where guilt comes from.

Q353. In "Dissecting the Social," Hedstrom suggests that "a statistical analysis is a test of an explanation, not the explanation itself" (13.9). Explain this distinction.

Q327. Our agency provides three types of client service: A, B, and C. And we have 3 kinds of staff: X, Y, and Z.

Each type A service requires 3 hours of an X staff member's time and 1 hour of a Y. Type B requires 2 X, 1 Y, and 3 Z hours. And type C requires 1 X, 3 Y, and 2 Z.

Currently we have 2 X, 1 Y and 1 Z on staff. We pay X's $25 per hour, Ys get $30 and Zs get $40. Assume everyone works a 35 hour week. At 35 hours per week our labor costs are 4200.

Revenue from type A service is $100, B is $200, and C is $300.

Regulations require that we serve at least 5 of each client type each week and that we serve at total of at least 21 clients each week.

What client mix will allow us to maximize revenue?

Excel Worksheet here.

Q406. Attribute and explicate: "…every genuine form of domination implies a minimum of voluntary compliance, that is, an interest in compliance."

Q303. Show, in QGIS, how to select features individually and by radius, rectangle, etc.

Q348. At 63.2 (in Hechter and Horne reader) Mead says there are two stages in the development of the social self. First the organization of particular attitudes of particular others toward oneself. Second is characterized by "an organization of the social attitudes of the generalized other or the social group…." Although we usually interpret this in terms of the development of a social self in children, we can use it to describe our joining of any new group or social environment. Explain what this means using an example of an individual's socialization into some concrete scene of your own conjuring.

Q227. A gold processor has two sources of gold ore, source A and source B. In order to kep his plant running, at least three tons of ore must be processed each day. Ore from source A costs $20 per ton to process, and ore from source B costs $10 per ton to process. Costs must be kept to less than $80 per day. Moreover, Federal Regulations require that the amount of ore from source B cannot exceed twice the amount of ore from source A. If ore from source A yields 2 oz. of gold per ton, and ore from source B yields 3 oz. of gold per ton, how many tons of ore from both sources must be processed each day to maximize the amount of gold extracted subject to the above constraints? (From Steve Wilson)

Q85. A regimen consists of three mandatory sessions, followed by an optional weekend retreat and then, monthly sessions until standard test indicates absence of symptoms.

Q131. Draw a causal loop diagram that illustrates the process of feeling hungry, eating, becoming satisfied, stopping, getting hungry again.

Q389. Explain what Weber means by traditional authority.

Q382. "A central idea in the readings in this section is that government matters" (87). Extend this idea to say that "organizations matter" in an argument about why some hierarchy is needed if we are to cooperate in groups of more than a few to get things done.

Q355. Explain what Marx means by "It is not consciousness that determines life, but life that determines consciousness" (47.7).

Q349. Language is the paramount example of a SOCIAL phenomenon - the "code system" of language exists in our collective, shared consciousness and anyone who wishes to communicate has to participate in this. Use language and the acquisition and use of language to explain Mead's idea of taking the role of the other, the generalized other, etc.

Q262. Explain the difference between equal interval, quantile, natural break, and standard deviation as classification methods If your data looked like this, and you have 5 class intervals, what would they be if you used each method?


Q383. Define the following words/phrases as used by Hobbes

felicity (89.3)
laudable actions (90.5)
redound … to their posterity (90.6)
thraldome (90.7)
hope of requitall (90.8)
secret machination (92.2)
Prudence (92.3)
diffidence (92.6)
cattell (93.5)
dommage (93.5)
Cardinall (94.8)
Jus and Lex (95.7)
Covenants (97.7)

Q121. Consider a "leaky" reservoir. Current volume 1,200 million gallons. Inflow 200 million gallons per month. Consumption 150 million gallons per month. Leakage 5% of current volume per month.

  1. Draw a stock and flow diagram of the situation.
  2. Draw a causal loop diagram showing the relationship between reservoir volume and the net in/out flow.
  3. Identify amount(s) and rate(s).
  4. Write the difference equation in the form $P_{n+1} = a \times P_n + b$.
  5. Calculate the expected equilibrium.
  6. Set up Excel model.
  7. Chart reservoir volume vs. time.

Q201. (1) Explain what 'the allegory of the dying seminar' was in Thomas Schelling's work. (2) What (incorrect) conclusion about human behavior might observers draw from the dying seminar? (3) What other examples of this phenomenon does Schelling offer? (4) What generic phenomenon are these all examples of?

Q268. Projections: explain the terms cylindrical, conical, azimuthal, conformal, equal-area in conjunction with map projections and coordinate systems

Q161. Comment on and improve upon the following text explication

Text Explication
“Whether an individual construes (language) as truth or error, understands it correctly or not, a set of findings meander throughout the community, becoming polished, transformed, reinforced or attenuated, while influencing other findings, concept formation, opinions, and habits of thought” (56). Thus, Fleck argues, language creates thought collectives. A thought collective is defined as a community of persons mutually exchanging ideas or maintaining intellectual interaction. Fleck believes that through the use of language, human’s form thought collectives with others whom they wish to share ideas with. With a sense of shared meaning evolves a sense of coordination.

15. Write a few paragraphs (< 400 words) explaining what makes these two situations a pair.

By the late 1630s and 1640s the population of Massachusetts Bay was no longer just the original “true believer” settlers. Some of the disputes that arose at this time were around the question of who is “really” a Puritan, whether people who aren’t “saved” should be voting members and so on.
“Political correctness” became an issue in the 1980s and 1990s ten to twenty years after the major social value shifts which occurred in the late 1960s around issues of race, gender, and politics. People became increasingly concerned about appearing to be on the right side of various debates even when they didn’t wholeheartedly agree with a given position.

19. Explain what Durkheim meant when he wrote that crime is a normal rather than a pathological condition of a society using, as an example, a political group which very carefully screens members to be sure that they agree with all the attitudes that the group stands for so that the group is quite homogeneous. Would Durkheim expect deviance to arise in this group? How so? What kind?

Q97. There's an idea in philosophy called "Pascal's Wager" that describes a way of thinking about the existence of god. It goes like this. I have a choice to believe or not believe. And there is a chance that god exists and a chance that there is no god. If I believe and there is a god, I have a chance at eternal salvation. If I don't believe but there is a god, I suffer eternal damnation. If I do believe and it turns out there is no god, I will feel a bit of a chump, but the atheists can feel smug if opposite is the case. Sketch this situation as a decision tree. Should you believe in god?

Q87. Sketch a flow chart to represent the following scenario. The Alameda County Waste Management Authority (ACWMA) has decided to spend some money on a public relations campaign to increase the level of composting ("green bin") recylcing. Data on hand says that current levels are 4 kg per household of four per week. The plan is to spend $10,000 on advertising each month until the level has gone over 6 kg per week for four weeks in a row.
Prefatory concern – what does 4 kg / household of 4 / week mean? The amount of compost likely depends on the number of people in a household. We don't want to get the numbers wrong by failing to take this into account. So, in our data collection, we double the number for households of 2, halve it for households of 8, etc. Why not just express it as "kg/person/week"? That would work fine mathematically. Perhaps the PR folks had wanted to focus on households (and families) so as to induce a greater sense of collective responsibility.

Q83. Weimer & Vining (1989) characterize policy problems in terms of market failure and government failure. Any given problem, they suggest, can be placed in one of four categories: (1) market AND government failure; (2) government works (policy corrects for market failure); (3) market works; (4) government failure to correct for market failure. Their suggested strategy is to start by asking whether there is a market failure and then whether there is government failure. Using the two conditionals, "Is there evidence of market failure?" and "Is there evidence of government failure?" construct a flowchart that would permit you to classify any given situation into one of the four aforementioned categories.

Q269. Explain longitude, latitude, parallels, meridians

Q300. You have been hired as a consultant to estimate the effects of a new criminal offender registry law that prohibits individuals on the registry from living within 1000 meters of a school. You are asked to

  • Make a map showing all areas that are off-limits to registered offenders
  • Calculate about how much of the city's rental market is off-limits to registered offenders based on this law.

You have

  • a point layer with school locations
  • a street layer
  • a census blockgroup layer with information on number of rental units (or at least renter occupied units as of the last census)

Q270. Describe and give examples of different types of maps: topographic, thematic, schematic, choropleth, isopleth, political, mental, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), political, physical, topographic, cadastral, climate, road, nautical charts, bathymetric chart, aeronautical chart

Q149. Diction, etc.

Individuals seek perpetual information about how they present themselves in their current social position and how to meaningfully readjust themselves based on their circumstances. Goffman illustrates this presentation adjustment by stating that people engage in “… performance which regularly functions in a general and fixed fashion to define the situation for those who observe the performance” (p.22).

Goffmans argues that the front is made up of two main parts: the setting and the personal front.

Goffman writes that a part of an individual’s performance is established in the “front”. This includes the setting, appearance of self, and manner.

Goffman describes the necessity for a player to believe in the part one is playing.

22. What does Donald Black mean by “corporate space”? In what sense is "corporateness" a variable? Give an example of a conflict in which one party has “high” corporateness and the other has “low” corporateness.

Q305. Open properties dialog for a vector layer and explain briefly what the Styles, Labels, Fields, Metadata, and Joins tabs are for.

Q247. What's wrong with this flow chart? How would you fix it?


Q330. Equilibrium came up many times in this course. Briefly catalog several and describe the concept and its importance. Be sure you can address (1) whether it is a normative concept (2) stable vs. unstable (3) different examples.

Q187. The diagram below represents a candidate's shifting weekly position on abortion. Treating this as a Markov model (where each transition is independent of previous sequence of states), show us what the transition matrix would look like. What do we call the state that would represent a candidate's final position on an issue? Using this diagram, what prediction can you make about what this candidate's position would be if he were to be elected?


Q133. College is a more or less four year endeavor but students come and go on different schedules. Sketch a stock and flow model that shows freshwomen applicants coming from the cloud, admitted students from applicants, and freshwomen from the admittees. Then freshwomen become sophomores, mostly, but there is some attrition. And so on through the other years. Sketch a stock and flow diagram that follows students through four years and think up some variables that might affect the flows between the different years. For this problem, you should try wearing the hat of an academic administrator who is interested in the problems of "retention" and "degree completion."

Q454. Consider the essay you wrote for the warm-up assignment at the start of this course on a film or book in which social order "disappeared." How would you re-write it in a manner that would show off some of what you learned in this course?

Q92. What is wrong with the decision tree here? I need to decide whether to work at home or go down to Stanford today. At home, because of distractions, I work at about 75% efficiency. If I go to my research office at Stanford I work at 100% efficiency. If I work at home I will get 8 hours to work. If I decide to drive down to Stanford, I will get 8 hours minus driving time to work. The normal drive is ^0 minutes each way. But about 20% of the time it is extra light and the round trip takes just 90 minutes. About 30% of the time, though, traffic is awful and round trip is 180 minutes. I made a decision tree to figure out where I should work if I am trying to maximize my output, but I did something wrong. Fix the tree and tell me what I should do.


Q98. Sketch the decision tree for the following scenario. I want to buy a used car. The car I am looking at is being offered at $4000. The seller says it is in good shape all around. I look it over and agree, but you never know for sure. Suppose there is a 10% chance that it is a total dog and that buying it will be a $2000 mistake. I know a mechanic who will give it a very thorough inspection, for a price. If my assumptions are correct, what's the most I should pay my mechanic?

Q380. Compare patrimonialism, bureaucracy, and charismatic authority in terms of the efficiency of maintaining order and ensuring loyalty among a leader's staff.

16. In some countries (and in some parts of this country) bus queues are more orderly and more common than in others. In other words, in some places people actually form a nice neat line starting at the spot where the bus will pull up so that people can board in exactly the order they arrived at the stop. What’s a common phrase for the norm used in such cases? Under what kinds of conditions would you expect strict queuing vs. more nonchalant “standing around”? Can you express the plusses and minuses in terms of deadweight loss and transaction costs?

Q79. Use stepwise refinement to create a flow chart for this set of instructions: Do A and then B. If C, then while E do F and after that do G, otherwise do H. Do I.

Q181. Which threshold frequency distribution corresponds to the following description:

This population is divided between those who are very easily persuaded to participate - they will jump on bandwagon readily - and people who are very reticent to join a movement, with relatively few people in between.

A. histogram01.gif B. histogram02.gif C. histogram03.gif
D. histogram04.gif E. histogram05.gif

Q65. Consider the document, "Plagiarism: Deterrence, Detection and Prevention" (a teaching manual for economics and business) by Jeremy B. Williams as an artifact. How would you classify the strategies for plagiarism prevention that it describes?

Q103. Suppose we are running a program to which we want to accept only individuals in the top 25% of the population (on some measurable trait). Unfortunately, our test for measuring the trait is only 80% accurate. Draw event tree and flip to show what kind of faith we can have in the test results. Which test result appears more worthy of taking at face value? Which group would you be inclined to develop a second test for?

Q365. A storyboard is a technique for graphically organizing the telling of a story. Think about how you would explain Marx's theory of consciousness as a theory of how the human individual is a vehicle for the generation of social order. Imagine how you would represent the theory visually and how you would explain it textually.


Q160. Comment on and improve upon the following text explication

Text Explication
In ‘Genesis and the Development of a Scientific Fact’, Fleck refers to language as a key form of interaction. He writes, “Thoughts pass from one individual to another, each time a little transformed, for each individual can attach to them somewhat different associations” (55). That is, thoughts that are submitted through language can inspire new and different meanings once shared through spoken word.

Q319. What does the indicatrix tell us about the Mollweide projection? Specifically, what do the red and black "12 o'clock" and "3 o'clock" lines mean?


Q137. Derive the equation for the equilibrium value of a difference equation from a formula that shows how Pn+1 relates to Pn.

Q274. Fill in the names of the "districts" in Oakland.


Q362. The theorists whose work was included in the section on individuals and social order each suggest mechanisms for how shared meaning happens through actual social interaction. Describe how each thinker is saying that the picture below is NOT how it happens - that is, we don't just magically have a bunch of social/cultural content in our heads; it gets there through a process, there's a mechanism that we can describe.

If it's later in the course, relate this to life in groups - how is this social content connected to ideas on internalization and socialization of group members?


Q386. "…the state arose from the need to keep class antagonisms in check…." Attribute and explain.

Q363. Demonstrate your understanding of Weber's typology of social action in the context of this course by explaining this diagram.


Q265. Identify graphical elements of a map: border, legend, scalebar, north arrow, author, date, projection, coordinates, data source, data date, title, body of map

Q402. Engels suggests that throughout history the state has been "for the ruling class." Identify the three historical periods he talks about and characterize how this plays out in each.

Q170. Suppose you have a population of one hundred persons. It is divided into five categories of willingness to join a protest all of which depend on people's expectations of how many others will appear at the protest. The thresholds range from very low (I'll go if anyone else is going) to the very high (I won't go unless basically everybody else is going).

Assume the population is divided among these categories as follows:

Challenge of Recruiting Very Easy Easy Average Hard Very Hard
Participation Threshold 1 10 40 60 99
Number at this threshold 10 20 40 20 10

a. If news reports suggest that 15 people will show up, how many actually will?

b. If last week saw participation of 41 and this is widely reported so that everyone knows, how many will come out this week? And then next week? And after that?

c. What if 91 came last week?

Q367. A storyboard is a technique for graphically organizing the telling of a story. Think about how you would explain Weber's typology of social action as it relates to our concerns with the generation of social order. Imagine how you would represent the theory visually and how you would explain it textually.


Q140. Identify and fix the main problem in the following passages.

In which an actor has the ability to choose his stage and props, as well as the costume he would wear in front of his audience (p.22-24).

I believe by using the above example is an illustration of the “front” by describing the clinic as the social setting and the lobby as the stage for the performers.

Q467. (a) Provide an example that illustrates how the IRR criteria can give wrong answer. (b) Provide an example that illustrates how payback period criterion can give the wrong answer. (c) Describe how risk, safety and hedonism might enter into the calculations in discounting problems.

Q464. (a) Suppose a friend makes the following offer: "I am willing to give you $10 right now, 25$ in 3 years or $200 in ten years." Describe the logic you might use to see which of these is the best deal. Calculate the present value of each opportunity and use the results to sketch a simple decision tree. Assume a discount rate of 5%

(b)If you have the choice between paying a cash price right now or spreading the payments out over 12 months with no interest, which would you choose and why?

Q86. Sort clients into four categories promising, troubling, recalcitrant, hopeless on the basis of two tests which can be passed or failed.

Q100. How much would you be willing to pay for a forecast that would resolve the contingency in problem 95?

Q252. Consider this network in which green agents are cooperators and violet are defectors and the cost of cooperating is 2 while the benefit of being cooperated with is 5. Where is the equilibrium is people's behavior changes based on their network experiences?


Q120. My bathtub fills at 10 gallons per minute. It has a leak, though, whereby it loses 10% of it's volume per minute. It's a neat rectangular tub in which each 10 gallons is 2 inches of depth. How does it behave over time?

Q239. I need to take a certification exam this year. The exam cost is $200. There is a prep course for the exam, but I don't know if I need it or not. It costs $300 and if one takes it, one is certain to pass the exam. If I do not take the prep course there is a 50% chance of passing and a 50% chance of failing in which case I'd have to take the prep course anyway and then retake the test (total cost = prep course + twice the exam fee). Should I take the prep course??

Q138. Suggest rewrite of the following text:

For example, Goffman uses front to distinguish and label the different parts of front as he sets a scene that consist of three components by using setting, appearance, and manner. In which an actor has the ability to choose his stage and props, as well as the costume he would wear in front of his audience (p.22-24).

0007. Blank

Q11. “Zero tolerance” is a popular cry these days, but does it always make sense? It is certainly a powerful symbolic statement, but it presents problems. Consider the diagram below and discuss the idea of zero tolerance in terms of marginal costs and benefits.


Q257. (a) Explain the equations for common pool resource problems as discussed in Lecture 17.4: "Collective Action and Common Pool Resource Problems":

$x_j$ : amount consumed by person j

$X$ : total consumed

Amount available next period: $C_{T+1} = (C_T - X)^2$

(b) Propose values of these variables that would result in a steady state equilibrium value of the resource.

Q205. Suppose the agents in a population have four behaviors - W, X, Y, Z - and that each behavior is either present or absent. When two agents meet they may have all the same behaviors, none of the same behaviors, or 1 or 2 behaviors in common. Suppose the probability of interaction is proportional to their similarity. IF they do interact, they flip a coin and who ever wins gets imitated by the other agent.

Use the two random number tables below (the left table for doing a Monte Carlo simulation of whether interaction occurs and the left table to determine which agent is the leader and which is the follower) to work out the next state n the grid below, determine the probability of interaction between each pair of neighbors (assume no diagonal interaction for now)

69 72 43 97 87 0 0 0 1 1
37 86 35 23 41 1 1 0 0 1
88 36 94 60 60 1 1 1 0 0
84 26 3 87 12 0 0 1 1 0
8 10 56 52 29 1 1 1 0 0
26 5 30 15 58 0 1 1 1 1
95 3 95 18 69 0 0 1 0 0
71 42 55 64 21 0 0 1 1 0
68 75 90 19 64 0 0 1 1 0
75 13 77 1 89 0 0 0 0 0

Q183. In the election between candidate A and candidate B, for voter X it comes down to what the candidate will do for the elderly. The election is a toss-up and it may well come down to X's vote. Research indicates that candidate A is quite likely (75% chance) to do 4 things for the elderly but many only end up doing one thing (25% chance). Candidate B, on the other hand, is very unlikely to do 4 things (10%) but is 90% likely to do 2 things. For whom should X vote if this is the deciding issue.

Q313. Create a point layer by importing a CSV file containing geographic coordinates.

Q466. A state agency is considering a childcare subsidy that would facilitate single parents attainment of college degrees. The benefit would cost $10k per recipient per year for four years. The expectation is that individuals with a college degree will earn more than individuals without a college degree. This means that they generate more revenue in the form of income tax. They are also less likely to require government assistance of various kinds — call this amount A. Assume current rules limit us to a ten year time horizon. Assume the average salary difference between non-college grads and college grads is D (but get the real info here) and that the marginal tax rate can be found here. Assume a 5% discount rate. For the purposes of this problem, we will ignore inflation.

Q226. "You have $12,000 to invest, and three different funds from which to choose. The municipal bond fund has a 7% return, the local bank's CDs have an 8% return, and the high-risk account has an expected (hoped-for) 12% return. To minimize risk, you decide not to invest any more than $2,000 in the high-risk account. For tax reasons, you need to invest at least three times as much in the municipal bonds as in the bank CDs. Assuming the year-end yields are as expected, what are the optimal investment amounts?" (From PurpleMath.com)

Q328. Have a look at this recent release from Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). The data separates those without a job into unemployed but "in the labor force" and "marginally attached to the labor force" and a subset of these called "discouraged" - the former would like to work but have not looked in the last four weeks and so are not counted as unemployed. The latter are not actively looking for work having given up on the idea that its possible to find. These groups are not included in the denominator when the unemployment rate is calculated. The simple version of the unemployment rate is, then,

\begin{align} UR = \frac {Unemployed} {Employed + Unemployed} \end{align}

Some recent op-eds have counseled caution about optimism that the overall unemployment rate has been going down because it might reflect growth in the number of people no longer looking for work. We'll think about that with a Markov model. We'll simplify the states a worker can be in:

  • employed (E)
  • short term unemployed - 14 weeks or less (US)
  • long term unemployed - over 14 weeks (LS)
  • Marginally attached to the labor force - no longer looking for a job (MALF)

Let's construct a simplified Markov model of unemployment based on transition rates shown here:


If the unemployment rate is calculated as the ratio of those who are short term unemployed (US) plus those who are long term unemployed (UL) to the total labor force (E + US + UL), how would things evolve over the next twelve months if the starting numbers are these:


What will the unemployment rate be? Even if it is agreed that getting unemployment to near 6% is a policy goal, are there reasons the results might not be a cause for celebration?

Create a chart showing changes over the next 12 months. Suggestion: plot total employment (E) on secondary axis since it's such a large number. In the alternative, put it on a separate chart.

Excel worksheet here

Q64. We'll use data on early 20th century Scottish industries to investigate interlocking directorates.

(From Pajek data online) This dataset contains the corporate interlocks in Scotland in the beginning of the twentieth century (1904-5). In the nineteenth century, the industrial revolution brought Scotland railways and industrialization, especially heavy industry and textile industry. The amount of capital needed for these large scale undertakings exceeded the means of private families, so joint stock companies were established, which could raise the required capital. Joint stock companies are owned by the shareholders, who are represented by a board of directors. This opens up the possibility of interlocking directorates. By the end of the nineteenth century, joint stock companies had become the predominant form of business enterprise at the expense of private family businesses. Families, however, still exercised control through ownership and directorships.

The data are taken from the book The Anatomy of Scottish Capital by John Scott and Michael Hughes. It lists the (136) multiple directors of the 108 largest joint stock companies in Scotland in 1904-5: 64 non-financial firms, 8 banks, 14 insurance companies, and 22 investment and property companies (Scotland.net). In this dataset, which was compiled from the Appendix of Scott & Hughes' book, note that two multiple directors (W.S. Fraser and C.D. Menzies) are affiliated with just one board so they are not multiple directors in the strict sense.
The companies are classified according to industry type: 1 - oil & mining, 2 - railway, 3 - engineering & steel, 4 - electricity & chemicals, 5 - domestic products, 6 - banks, 7 - insurance, and 8 - investment. In addition, there is a vector specifying the total capital or deposits of the firms in 1,000 pound sterling.


John Scott & Michael Hughes, The anatomy of Scottish capital: Scottish companies and Scottish capital, 1900-1979 (London: Croom Helm, 1980).
W. de Nooy, A. Mrvar, & V. Batagelj, Exploratory Social Network Analysis with Pajek (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), Chapter 5.


Original authors: are John Paul Scott (1949) (ku.ca.xesse|jttocs#ku.ca.xesse|jttocs, University of Essex) & Michael Hughes (1947, University of Lancaster in 1980, not listed now).
Data compiled into Pajek data files by W. de Nooy, 2001

Use NodeXL to visualize this data. The data is in three network datasets: a bipartite network of people and companies (edges represent a person being a director of a company); a network of people (the edges are co-membership in companies); and a network of companies (edges are sharing a director).

Task 1: Create a preliminary two mode visualization that shows people as small circles and companies as larger squares. Try different layouts (including manually assisted) and produce the best visualization you can (in a reasonable amount of time). Can you color the companies by industry? Are there individuals who appear to be bridges between industries? Or who appear to be kingpins in a particular industry?

Task 2: Do a quick exploration of the people by people network. Try different visualizations. Calculate graph metrics. It might clarify the visualization if you use dynamic filtering to discard barely connected individuals. Change node size by graph metric. Can you identify a class of apparently important people? Try clustering.

Task 3: Now look at company by company network. Cluster, color, explore. How much do network clusters follow industry? Are there cluster bridging companies? Are you surprised at what they are.

Turn in short paper that shows your explorations.

The data is in the following Excel files.

No files attached to this page.

Q127. Consider the singles bar scene. Develop a model along the lines of the market for lemons (Wikipedia), that would suggest that information asymmetries could possibly kill the scene. What institutional interventions prevent this from happening?.

Q220. What is the objective function in each of the following situations?

  1. What is the largest volume box I can make by folding a piece of cardboard that is A inches by B inches?
  2. Pancakes cost $1 each, eggs are 1.50, and blintzes are 2. Pancakes have 200 calories, eggs 125 and blintzes 450. What combination gives me the most calories for 5 dollars?
  3. What's the cheapest 1000 calorie daily diet?
  4. I have information on the level of AOD demand reduction we can expect from public awareness campaigns, DARE visits to public schools, increased treatment slots, and increases in after care. I know the cost of each type program and I have a limited budget. What mix of programs should I institute to have the biggest effect on demand?

Q387. Explain the following words/terms as used in Weber's excerpt on types of legitimate domination:

wertrationale (103.6)
material interests (103.6)
charismatic (104.4)
abstract rules (105.2)
impersonal order (105.3)
rationally delimited jurisdiction (105.5)
[absence of] "appropriation of his official position by the incumbent" (106.4)
office (106.7)
plebiscite (106.9)
administrative staff (107.2)
monocracy (107.4)
"principle of appointment" (108.5)
"red tape" (109.7)
dilettantism (109.8)
levelling (111.4)
sine ira et studio (111.5) - See Wikipedia
formalism (111.8)
utilitarian expediency (112.7)
patrimonial (113.4) - See Wikipedia
prebendal (114.6)
formal system of rules (116.7)
routinization of charisma (118.7)

Q461. Consider the task of building a logic model for a setting up an "academic excellence center" on campus. Brainstorm about resources, activities, outputs, and outcomes. For each category, give examples of too much detail, not enough detail, and just the right amount of detail for a straightforward logic model.

Q267. What is a csvt file and why is it useful?

Q476. This is one of a series of problems (469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 477, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands.

The Ourville Alliance, a neighborhood group whose members include several MPPs, likes decision trees. And they think the benefits of the different park options are not certain. In fact, they think that Option A has a 75% chance of a net benefit of 60 and a 25% chance of being a bust and having a net benefit of only 20. By comparison, Option B has a 90% chance of having a net benefit of 50 and a 10% chance of a net benefit of only 10. Sketch in details, labels, etc. on this decision tree as necessary. What do you recommend and why?


Q426. Weber's definition, please:

traditional authority
rational legal authority
charismatic authority

Q182. Which threshold frequency distribution corresponds to the following description:

The community has a few people who will join no matter what, a few more who will join if some others have joined, still more who will join if a goodly number are on board and so on all the way up to a hesitant few but even they will join if it appears everyone else has.

A. histogram01.gif B. histogram02.gif C. histogram03.gif
D. histogram04.gif E. histogram05.gif

23. Both Donald Black and Robert Ellickson take care to distinguish between first, second, and third party social control. Most of this course has focused on one particular type of third party control – informal control through social norms. Using marriage/married life as an example, briefly demonstrate that you understand that control varies from personal ethics (first party, self control), promisee enforced contracts (second party), and the three types of third party control (organizational rules, law, and social norms) by describing ways each might come up in association with marriage, married relationships, etc..

Q31. Demonstrate basic familiarity with email, wikis, Twitter, Facebook, newsgroups, listserves.

Q474. This is one of a series of problems (469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 475, 476, 477, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands.

The mayor of Ourville wants a more detailed analysis on option A. Apparently, the park could range in size from the very small to the very large. Budget concerns are not an issue for now. Examine the information below. What do you recommend and why? For example: What type of problem is this? What is the fundamental rule? How big should the park be?


Q276. Go to OpenStreetMap.org and edit a building structure in the neighborhood around Mills.

Q156. A state corrections system has established a new drug treatment facility for first offenders. The center has a capacity of 1000.

Inmates may leave the facility in either of two ways. In any period, there is a 10 percent probability that an inmate will be judged rehabilitated, in which case s/he will be released at the beginning of the following period.. There is also a 5 percent chance that an inmate will escape during each period. Rehabilitated addicts have a 20 percent chance of relapsing in each period; escapees have a 10 percent chance of being recaptured each period. Both recidivists and recaptured escapees are returned to the facility and have priority over new offenders.


If it operates at full capacity, how many of the original inmates will be resident at the facility 10 periods later?
How many new offenders can be admitted during each of the next 2 periods?
What happens if we modify the model to allow for a small possibility of death or a change in the probability of relapse?

20. Explain what is meant by "social control as a dependent variable."

Q374. "Social order triumphs over the state of nature by coercion…." Attribute and explain.

Q326. (A) Consider this plot of Pn+1 vs. Pn. Without worrying about what sort of system it might be, show that you understand how the chart works by describing the behavior of this system if it starts at time i at Pi=30. How about 70?


(B) If this is a model of attendance at, say, a protest rally with the axes representing percentage of the population, and Pn is how many showed up last week (a number everyone knows) and Pn+1 is how many that means we can expect this week (based on the distribution of individual thresholds - how many people need to be going for me to decide to go), how would you interpret the gaps A and B on the chart?

(C) Think about the "standing ovation model." What features does it add to the basic model described here.

Q457. The overall logic of the final section of the course was that groups can promote social order through internalization of norms and provision of incentives. Explain how each of these work and what the difference is using at least one thinker to illustrate each.

Q50. What kind of network data might emerge from: tweets, retweets, hashtags? Assume we have powerful access to the Twitter stream (meaning we can grab all the tweets in a given time frame, all the tweets by a set of users, all the tweets that mention a hashtag or a user, etc. And assume we have access to the API and so can take a user name and get a list of who she follows or who follows her.

Describe five different networks we might construct from this data.

Q258. Insofar as particulars matter, what's the difference between cows, lobsters, and whether you live up stream or downstream?

0006. It's the end of the semester and it's time to optimize. I have a sociology final exam and a public policy final exam on the same day and I can only allocate 16 hours total to exam preparation.
I estimate that if I do not study at all, I'll get C- in public policy and a C+ in sociology. But, experience has shown that studying pays off. In sociology, each hour of study raises my grade by 1/3 (0.33) of a letter grade (C- to C, for example). In public policy, the payoffs are not as quick: each 2 hours yields 1/3 of a letter grade (0.167 grade per hour).
Thus, 3 hours of sociology study would take me from C+ to B+
C 1 hour > B- 1 hour > B 1 hour > B+

Our plans are subject to a number of constraints:

  • There is a four hour public policy study session planned with the professor and it would be unwise and impolitic not to attend. Thus, PPOL hours has to be at least 4.
  • Since the top grade is A, sociology will top out at 5 study hours since these will take me from C+…B-…B…B+…A-…A and in public policy my max is correspondingly 14 with each 2 hours taking me one grade of the seven steps from C- to A.
  • Total study hours must be 16 or less.
  • Since I am a public policy major, I feel strongly that I have to study more for PPOL than for SOCIOLOGY

I translate these into five inequalities

  • (Only 16 hours ) PPOL = -SOC + 16
  • (PPOL Study Group) PPOL ≥ 4
  • (SOCIOLOGY max) SOC ≤ 5
  • (PPOL max) PPOL ≤ 14

I want to know how to divide my study time so as to maximize my grades. Let's start with a typical Excel layout for a simple LP problem.


Identify the lines in this chart, indicate the feasible set, and find the optimal value of the variables and the resulting value of the objective function.

Q307. Find a color scheme using ColorBrewer and implement it on a polygon layer in QGIS.

Q417. In the context of game theory/prisoner's dilemma, what does "words are cheap" mean?

Q368. A storyboard is a technique for graphically organizing the telling of a story. Think about how you would explain Durkheim's theory of collective representations (shared meaning) as a theory of how the human individual is a vehicle for the generation of social order. Imagine how you would represent the theory visually and how you would explain it textually.


Q151. A cinema has a marquee with lots and lots of light bulbs. In any given week 1% of the light bulbs burn out. Unfortunately, between being busy and being sloppy, replacement is a little bit sporadic. Of all the bulbs that are burnt out, about 95% get replaced each week. Draw the state diagram for this system.

Q223. A non-profit supplier of after-school materials has orders for 600 copies from San Francisco and 400 copies from Sacramento. The organization has 700 copies in a warehouse in Novato and 800 copies in a warehouse in Lodi. It costs $5 to ship a text from Novato to San Francisco, but it costs $10 to ship it to Sacramento. It costs $15 to ship from Lodi to San Francisco, but it costs $4 to ship it from Lodi to Sacramento. How many copies should the organization ship from each warehouse to San Francisco and Sacramento to fill the order at the least cost? [http://www.sonoma.edu/users/w/wilsonst/Courses/Math_131/lp/default.html]

Q168. Suppose we have a diffusion process in which susceptibles who are in contact with an infected in a given time period have a 50% chance of becoming infected in the next time period. Now play the “game” again except this time flip a coin each time (or use a random number chart for probabilities other than 50:50) to see whether neighbors become infected or not. Note: You might not want to play all the way out to time period 5! On the grids below color in squares to indicate what happens over the first six time periods beginning with one infected. Then fill in the table and chart the data.


Q184. A campaign director is flying blind. Two tossup states both have 20 electoral votes. All current information is that the chances of winning in each is 50:50.

Draw the event tree that describes the possible election outcomes.

Our campaign director has the opportunity to do one last ad buy of $1 million. Research and experience have shown that an ad buy in a right state where a significant portion of the electorate is still open minded could shift the odds of winning to 60/40. How do we know? We've done lots of audience research that shows how particular electorates respond to this ad's approach. But doing the ad buy in the wrong state (one where folks have really made up their minds) will have no effect on the outcome. What we don't know is which, if either, of these states is the best fit for this type of campaigning.

Draw this decision tree.

Now suppose there is a poll she could do to find out whether state A or state B is the more promising state for the new ad. There is a 50% chance the poll says state A and a 50% chance it says state B. If it says state A then you do the ad buy there and you are certain to increase your chances while things in B stay the same. And vice versa.

What is the value of the information the poll can provide, in electoral votes?

Q67. Work through the first half of chapter 7 of the NodeXL book using the senate data.

Let's see if we can find some structure within either or both of the parties. The last exercise the text book suggests — changing the edge filtering threshold (basically eliminating edges below some threshold so that we only count it as a similarity edge if, say, two senators vote together 75% of the time) — let's us see some variation.

But what if we look only at Republican-Republican edges?

=VLOOKUP([@[Vertex 1]],Vertices[[Vertex]:[Party]],28)&"-"&VLOOKUP([@[Vertex 2]],Vertices[[Vertex]:[Party]],28)

Q54. Use the data you generated in Q53 to produce simple visualizations of these networks in NodeXL and import these into a Word document to report your results.

Q250. What's wrong with this flow chart? How would you fix it?


Q275. What do the four digit numbers on this map of the Laurel District most likely represent?

Q66. The chart below could easily figure in an argument that the death penalty does not deter murder. It shows that since 1990 the murder rate per 100,000 population has been higher in states WITH the death penalty than in those without it.

What is an obvious "correlation is not causation" counter-argument?


Q208. Explicate and comment:

One of our main contentions will be that very complex orders, comprising more particular facts than any brain could ascertain or manipulate, can be brought about only through forces inducing the formation of spontaneous orders (Hayek 1976: 143.5).

Q259. What are the 5+2 means of achieving cooperation in the face of structural arrangements that "mandate" non-cooperation in human relationships?

Q424. Fill in the blank boxes in this summary diagram for how hierarchy can generate social order. Note that the diagram is purely schematic - you might decide there are more or fewer boxes in different cases or the arrows might not go directly to coordination first, etc.


Q308. Take a basic thematic map of Oakland, set up a print composer, and add graticule and customize annotations.

Q153. A criminologist and an activist decide to collaborate on a project designed to reduce prison population. In the spirit of starting simple, they identify 4 states in which people can find themselves: never imprisoned; incarcerated; on parole; post-parole. The period of time in their analysis will be one year. Suppose 70% of the population has never been incarcerated. Each year 2% of these people are imprisoned. Of those currently incarcerated, 20% are released each year onto parole. Average parole is 5 years so that a person on parole has a 20% chance of finishing parole. Those on parole have a 10% chance of finding themselves back in prison in any given year. Individuals who are post parole have a 4% chance of returning to prison in any given year. Draw a state diagram and matrix representing this information.

Q284. What are "map tiles"? Where do we encounter them? How do they work?

Q460. Modify this as you like so it refers to a trip project you might plan with family or friends.

We are proposing an inexpensive family trip from Charleston, South Carolina, to Des Moines, Iowa, to visit relatives during December school holidays. The seasonal trip we dream of taking from Charleston to Des Moines is the “program.” Basic assumptions about our trip “program” are:

  • We want to visit relatives between 12/10/00 and 1/5/01 while the children are out of school.
  • We will fly from South Carolina to Iowa because it takes less time than driving and because frequent flier (FF) miles are available.
  • Using frequent flier miles will reduce travel costs.

We have to determine the factors influencing our trip, including necessary resources, such as, the number of family members, scheduled vacation time, the number of frequent flier miles we have, round trip air reservations for each family member, and transportation to and from our home to the airport. The activities necessary to make this happen are the creation of our own family holiday schedule, securing our Iowa relative’s schedule, garnering air line information and reservations and planning for transportation to and from the airport.

Q193. In "Cosmos & Taxis" Friedrich von Hayek distinguishes two kinds of order. What does he call them? What are some synonyms for his terms? Demonstrate your understanding of the difference by giving examples of social order of each type.

Q173. Consider this data on the thresholds in a population. Draw a frequency histogram and cumulative frequency diagram. If news reports suggest participation will be at 20 people, how many people's threshold is met or exceeded? How about if the number is 70?


Q27. Consider the imaginary bibliographies shown below for 7 classic works of sociology.

  • Aron, Raymond. 1967. Les Étapes de la pensée sociologique
  • Bourdieu, Pierre. 1972. Esquisse d'une théorie de la pratique, précédé de trois études d'ethnologie kabyle (Outline of a Theory of Practice)
  • Crozier, Michel. 1964. The Bureaucratic Phenomenon
  • Durkheim, Emile. 1912. Elementary Forms of the Religious Life
  • Erikson, Kai. 1967. Wayward Puritans
  • Frazier, E. Franklin. 1955. Bourgeoisie noire
  • Geiger, Theodore. 1963. Demokratie ohne Dogma: Die Gesellschaft zwischen Pathos und Niichternheit.

Aron 1967


Bourdieu 1972


Crozier 1964


Durkheim 1912

Erikson 1967


Frazier 1955


Geiger 1963


(a) Sketch the directed network of citations.

(b) For each pair of authors count up how many times they cite the same other author.

(c) Next, for each pair of authors, count how many books cite both of them. For example, Crozier and Durkheim are cited by Aron, Bourdieu, and Erikson so the count would be 3.

Q130. In a "bathtub problem," why don't we include the water company or the sewer system to be stocks?

Q314. Show how to set snapping options to make vertex matching while drawing polygons by hand easier.

Q251. Suppose the (time) cost of waiting behind someone with a big shopping cart in the super market checkout line is 10 minutes while the time behind someone with a very few items is 2 minutes. Consider three cities, A, B, and C. Suppose the probability of running into someone again soon in the grocery store is 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 in cities A, B, and C, respectively. What do we predict? Which "path to cooperation" does this illustrate?

Q217. Sociologists and anthropologists gripe endlessly about rational actor models, failing, over and over again, to understand that they are MODELS, not descriptions. Explicate and comment on this passage to show that you understand what the value of a model like prisoner's dilemma is for social theory.

The Cooperation Theory that is presented…is based upon an investigation of individuals who pursue their own self-interest without the aid of a central authority to force them to cooperate with each other. The reason for assuming self-interest is that it allows an examination of the difficult case in which cooperation is not completely based upon a concern for others or upon the welfare of the group as a whole. It must, however, be stressed that this assumption is actually much less restrictive than it appears. … So the assumption of self interest is really just an assumption that concern for others does not completely solve the problem of when to cooperate with them and when not to (Axelrod 1984: 177.2).

Q425. What research questions did the "live and let live" phenomenon from WWI raise for Robert Axelrod?

Q369. A storyboard is a technique for graphically organizing the telling of a story. Think about how you would explain Fleck's theory of thought communities as a theory of how the human individual is a vehicle for the generation of social order. Imagine how you would represent the theory visually and how you would explain it textually.


Q428. Attribute and explicate.

Fate is regarded as a substitute for the parental agency. If a man is unfortunate it means that he is no longer loved by this highest power; and, threatened by such a loss of love, he once more bows to the parental representative in his super-ego — a representative whom, in his days of good fortune, he was ready to neglect. This becomes especially clear where looked Fate is looked upon in the strictly religious sense of being nothing else than an expression of the Divine Will. The people of Israel had believed themselves to be the favorite child of God, and when the great. Father caused misfortune after misfortune to rain down upon this people of his, they were never shaken in their belief in his relationship to them or questioned his power or righteousness. Instead, they produced the prophets, who held up their sinfulness before them; and out of their sense of guilt they created the over-strict commandments of their priestly religion. It is remarkable how differently a primitive man behaves. If he has met with a misfortune, he does not throw the blame on himself but on his fetish, which has obviously not done its duty, and he gives it a thrashing instead of punishing himself.

Q395. Explain the following terms or phrases in the context of Paul Willis' Learning to Labour.

"an aimless air of insubordination" (124.4)
'ear'oles (124.9)
"universal taboo…yielding incriminating information…to those with formal power" (129.3)
"grassing" (129.4)

Q55. Consider this adjacency matrix. Following standard conventions, calculate in- and out-degree for each vertex.

A - 0 1 0 1
B 0 - 0 1 1
C 0 1 - 1 1
D 0 0 1 - 0
E 0 1 1 1 -

Q335. Consider Marx on the production of consciousness. How important does the kind of work seem to be as over against the kinds interaction among people who do the same kind of work for Marx? Compare, perhaps, Uber drivers and fast food workers. Would Marx expect less or a different kind of shared consciousness among the one or the other?

Q462. Sketch a logic model for buying a house.

Q357. Demonstrate your understanding of the Durkheim excerpt and its connection to ideas about how the nature of the social individual is a "source" of social order by explaining this diagram. Use examples to illustrate your ideas.


Q47. Use NodeXL to visualize the following networks

Node List
A, B, C, E
B, A, C, F
C, A, D
D, B, E, F
E, B, F
F, A, D, E

Edge List

A, B
A, C
A, E
B, A
C, A
C, B,
C, D
D, B
D, E
D, F
E, F
F, B
F, C
F, D

Full Matrix

A - 1 0 0 0 1
B - 0 0 1 1
C - 1 1 1
D - 1 0
E - 0
F -

Q293. Identify the counties in the greater Bay Area.


Q322. Say what's wrong with these flow charts and redraw them correctly.

flowchart-bad-01a.png flowchart-bad-02a.png flowchart-bad-03a.png

Q399. Identify and elaborate on three ways in which the shopfloor culture described by Willis parallels the counter-school culture he talks about.

(for final exam) Bring the phenomena Willis describes into conversation with material from the "groups" section of the course. What mechanisms described in that section might illuminate the lads' oppositional culture or shop floor culture?

Q143. Wordsmith this opening sentence:

I will discuss some of the concepts discussed by Erving Goffman in his book The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, which he elaborates face to face interactions, and the different roles that everyone takes in presenting themselves.

Q479. Some old cars are being driven by people who take the attitude "if it ain't broke, don't fix it" and "sure, it might not be efficient or clean, but I can't afford to buy a new car." These cars use too much fuel and they pollute the air causing health problems in the population. Assume new cars are zero emission and so create zero health care costs. Each old car, on average, contributes to pollution and health care costs to the tune of $300 per year. We want to run a program to get 100 "junkers" off the road each year for the next three years by offering a $2000 rebate to people who swap a junker for a brand new zero emission vehicle. Working with a ten year time horizon and an initial discount rate of 3.5%, compute the NPV of the project. Then adjust the the subsidy to determine how large a subsidy we can give and still have the project worth doing. Then compute the IRR of the project at both the original amount and this new amount.

Q449. What does Hechter mean by "the extensiveness of corporate obligations"?

Q266. What is interpolation and how do heat maps work?

Q70. If social order equals coordination and cooperation, provide some illustrations that support the authors' contention that "the problem of social order underlies questions of central concern to sociologists in substantive areas as diverse as crime and deviance, social movements, organizations, politics, religion, international relations, and the family" (xiii.1). Use this an opportunity to show you can distinguish cooperation and coordination and in general "get" the course. Perhaps add a category or two of your own.