Q153. A criminologist and an activist decide to collaborate on a project designed to reduce prison population. In the spirit of starting simple, they identify 4 states in which people can find themselves: never imprisoned; incarcerated; on parole; post-parole. The period of time in their analysis will be one year. Suppose 70% of the population has never been incarcerated. Each year 2% of these people are imprisoned. Of those currently incarcerated, 20% are released each year onto parole. Average parole is 5 years so that a person on parole has a 20% chance of finishing parole. Those on parole have a 10% chance of finding themselves back in prison in any given year. Individuals who are post parole have a 4% chance of returning to prison in any given year. Draw a state diagram and matrix representing this information.

Q232. Durkheim lived in an age when the role and existence of “god” as ultimate source of right and rule and order was under question. Rather than choose between “the human” and “the divine” Durkheim stared religion in the face, so to speak, and showed how what we think of as divine/sacred is in fact human (social). How do the following passages convey Durkheim’s theory of the special power of social norms and his idea about society as god and the notion that the individual, with norms and values of society internalized, can be a source of social order?

Durkheim, “Collective Representations” from Elementary Forms

“An individual or collective subject is said to inspire respect when the representation that expresses it in consciousness has such power that it calls forth or inhibits conduct automatically, irrespective of any utilitarian calculation of helpful or harmful results” (50.8).

“The ways of acting to which society is strongly enough attached to impose them on its members are for that reason marked with a distinguishing sign that calls forth respect” (51.1).

“Because social pressure makes itself felt through mental channels, it was bound to give men the idea that outside him there are one or several powers, moral yet mighty, to which he was subject” (52.1).

“In the midst of an assembly that becomes worked up, we become capable of feelings and conduct of which we are incapable when left to our individual resources” (52.5).

Q27. Consider the imaginary bibliographies shown below for 7 classic works of sociology.

  • Aron, Raymond. 1967. Les Étapes de la pensée sociologique
  • Bourdieu, Pierre. 1972. Esquisse d'une théorie de la pratique, précédé de trois études d'ethnologie kabyle (Outline of a Theory of Practice)
  • Crozier, Michel. 1964. The Bureaucratic Phenomenon
  • Durkheim, Emile. 1912. Elementary Forms of the Religious Life
  • Erikson, Kai. 1967. Wayward Puritans
  • Frazier, E. Franklin. 1955. Bourgeoisie noire
  • Geiger, Theodore. 1963. Demokratie ohne Dogma: Die Gesellschaft zwischen Pathos und Niichternheit.

Aron 1967


Bourdieu 1972


Crozier 1964


Durkheim 1912

Erikson 1967


Frazier 1955


Geiger 1963


(a) Sketch the directed network of citations.

(b) For each pair of authors count up how many times they cite the same other author.

(c) Next, for each pair of authors, count how many books cite both of them. For example, Crozier and Durkheim are cited by Aron, Bourdieu, and Erikson so the count would be 3.

Q342. With which theorists do we associate this diagram? Explain what it means in the context of their work.


Q245. Offer a critique of this flow chart diagram


19. Explain what Durkheim meant when he wrote that crime is a normal rather than a pathological condition of a society using, as an example, a political group which very carefully screens members to be sure that they agree with all the attitudes that the group stands for so that the group is quite homogeneous. Would Durkheim expect deviance to arise in this group? How so? What kind?

Q182. Which threshold frequency distribution corresponds to the following description:

The community has a few people who will join no matter what, a few more who will join if some others have joined, still more who will join if a goodly number are on board and so on all the way up to a hesitant few but even they will join if it appears everyone else has.

A. histogram01.gif B. histogram02.gif C. histogram03.gif
D. histogram04.gif E. histogram05.gif

Q73. Sketch a flowchart that represents this bit of logic: “if cell E$3 is greater than cell G$12 then value is G$12; otherwise, value is G$12-E$3.”

Q473. This is one of a series of problems (469, 470, 471, 472, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands.

Two options are on the table for the community of Ourville. Either option will cost $100. Option A — the West Park – provides $80 of benefits (total) to families who live close to the west park location and $52 (total) to families who live farther away on the east side of town. Option B – the East Park – provides $40 to the first group of families and $110 to the second group. What do you recommend and why?


Q114. A totalitarian country that prohibits migration has a birth rate b and a death rate d. How does the population change from one year to the next?

We can interpret "birth rate" or "death rate" in two ways — as a rate, for example, deaths per 100 people — or as an absolute number, for example, 5 people per year. In general, we will mean the former.

Let $P_{i}$ be the population in year i. Write an expression for the population in year i+1. If the population in a given year is 100 and birth rate, b, is 5% and the death rate, d, is 6%, write out the population for the next 5 years.

Q334. Describe, with examples, the policy implications of a theory that has individuals and their shared meanings as the main source of social order.

Q371. A storyboard is a technique for graphically organizing the telling of a story. Think about how you would explain Kanazawa's description of evolutionary biology and its connection to our thinking about the basis for social order. Imagine how you would represent the theory visually and how you would explain it textually.


Q116. The Eastville School Committee is agrees to an annual $200 per year salary increase for each Eastville teacher. Express this as a difference equation.

Q267. What is a csvt file and why is it useful?

Q376. In the context of Engels, what is a class? What are the main classes under feudalism? Capitalism?

Q231. A transport company has two types of trucks, Type A and Type B. Type A has a refrigerated capacity of 20 m3 and a non-refrigerated capacity of 40 m3 while Type B has the same overall volume with equal sections for refrigerated and non-refrigerated stock. A grocer needs to hire trucks for the transport of 3,000 m3 of refrigerated stock and 4 000 m3 of non-refrigerated stock. The cost per kilometer of a Type A is $30, and $40 for Type B. How many trucks of each type should the grocer rent to achieve the minimum total cost?


A school district has two types of lower division schools, type A and type B. Type A school buildings have capacity for 200 little kids and 400 big kids. Type B buildings have capacity for 300 little kids and 300 big kids. Next year the district expects enrollments of 3000 little kids and 4000 big kids. Type A buildings cost 30,000 per year to maintain while type B buildings cost 40,000. What mix of school buildings will allow the district to handle the expected enrollment at the lowest maintenance cost? (From VITutor)

Q302. What is the significance of this map? What does it show? Who made it? When was it made?


Q163. Work through this passage by Durkheim:

…it is with the people of his clan that he has most in common, and it is the influence of this group that he feels most immediately, and so it is also this influence, more than any other, that was bound to find expression in religious symbols” (55).

Can you make any connections to Mead's generalized other? Or the generic idea of having some of our mental content being social?

Q103. Suppose we are running a program to which we want to accept only individuals in the top 25% of the population (on some measurable trait). Unfortunately, our test for measuring the trait is only 80% accurate. Draw event tree and flip to show what kind of faith we can have in the test results. Which test result appears more worthy of taking at face value? Which group would you be inclined to develop a second test for?

Q187. The diagram below represents a candidate's shifting weekly position on abortion. Treating this as a Markov model (where each transition is independent of previous sequence of states), show us what the transition matrix would look like. What do we call the state that would represent a candidate's final position on an issue? Using this diagram, what prediction can you make about what this candidate's position would be if he were to be elected?


Q436. At 242.5 Durkheim writes "Poverty protects against suicide because it is a restraint in itself." What does he mean?

Q147. Identify and fix problems of diction in these examples.

Q127. Consider the singles bar scene. Develop a model along the lines of the market for lemons (Wikipedia), that would suggest that information asymmetries could possibly kill the scene. What institutional interventions prevent this from happening?.

Q480. Convert the data recorded on the cards below into a cases by variables table.


Q276. Go to OpenStreetMap.org and edit a building structure in the neighborhood around Mills.

Q236. In a prisoner’s dilemma game, the rational thing for both players is to defect. This makes mutual defection an equilibrium, though it is not a preferred one (the collective would be better off with another outcome). In other words, in a single game of prisoner’s dilemma, cooperation is “impossible.” But cooperation does happen in the world.

Demonstrate your understanding of Axelrod's ideas by describing the mechanism and conditions under which this can happen without assuming anything “social” about the agents.


Explain how this works and how it adds to or modifies Smith’s and Hayek’s story about how markets can be a source of social order.

Q50. What kind of network data might emerge from: tweets, retweets, hashtags? Assume we have powerful access to the Twitter stream (meaning we can grab all the tweets in a given time frame, all the tweets by a set of users, all the tweets that mention a hashtag or a user, etc. And assume we have access to the API and so can take a user name and get a list of who she follows or who follows her.

Describe five different networks we might construct from this data.

Q33. Practice Gephi exercises.


Q176. Which of the cumulative frequency distributions below corresponds to this frequency distribution

A. cumfreq01.gif B. cumfreq02.gif C. cumfreq03.gif
D. cumfreq04.gif E. cumfreq05.gif

Q215. Explicate and comment:

The division of labour, from which so many advantages are derived, is not originally the effect of any human wisdom, which foresees and intends that general opulence to which it gives occasion. It is the necessary, though very slow and gradual consequence of a certain propensity in human nature which has in view no such extensive utility; the propensity to truck, barter, and exchange one thing for another (Smith 1776: 171.8).

Q190. An eager campaign volunteer wants to think rationally about where to put her time. She does her research about phone-banking and canvassing and discovers the following.

A full shift (calling hundreds!) at phone banking has a 10% chance of producing 20 votes and a 60% chance of producing 2 votes, 10% chance of producing no votes and a 20% chance of losing 2 votes. Canvassing, by comparison, has a 20% chance of producing 8 votes, 30% chance of producing 4 votes, and a 50% chance of producing no votes. Other things being equal, which would be a better use of her time?

Q106. She may love you or she may not. It turns out there is a 40% chance she does. You decide to use the buttercup test to find out (hold a buttercup under chin and see if it reflects yellow). The test is 90% accurate. Draw tree and flip to determine what conclusions we can draw from positive and negative buttercup test results.

Q186. Our neighborhood Obama for America committee is an active one. It's so active that it wears people out. Over the course of the campaign it tends to recruit 4 new people every week but it also loses about 10% of its membership due to fatigue each week. The committee began in June with 6 members. Write the difference equations that describe the size of the committee (S) each week. What's the long term prognosis?

Q475. This is one of a series of problems (469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 476, 477, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands.

Activists in Ourville force the city not to think of this as an either/or proposition. Experts are consulted and the following cost benefit information is obtained. Council allocates $200 for the parks project. How do you recommend they proceed and why? What kind of problem is this? How big should each park be?


Q270. Describe and give examples of different types of maps: topographic, thematic, schematic, choropleth, isopleth, political, mental, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), political, physical, topographic, cadastral, climate, road, nautical charts, bathymetric chart, aeronautical chart

Q248. What criticism would you offer if the diagram below were my first stab at a flow chart for an organizational process? How would you fix it?


Q207. Convert the following logic into a set of step-by-step instructions in a manner that uses stepwise refinement.

To execute coordination we proceed as follows. Each agent will consider in turn its north, east, south, and west neighbors. First the agent determines whether interaction will take place at all based on similarity. Then, if they do interact, they flip a coin to decide who is the leader and who is the follower. Then the follower copies the traits of the leader. And then onto the next neighbor if there is one.

We can incorporate the following design decisions into our model: (1) neighbors who have already interacted in a given round do not do so again; (2) an agent can change multiple times during a given round; (3) all interactions are with the agent's current state.

Q323. What flow chart concept does this diagram illustrate? Explain what it means and how we use it. Draw the series of flow charts implied by this diagram.


Q223. A non-profit supplier of after-school materials has orders for 600 copies from San Francisco and 400 copies from Sacramento. The organization has 700 copies in a warehouse in Novato and 800 copies in a warehouse in Lodi. It costs $5 to ship a text from Novato to San Francisco, but it costs $10 to ship it to Sacramento. It costs $15 to ship from Lodi to San Francisco, but it costs $4 to ship it from Lodi to Sacramento. How many copies should the organization ship from each warehouse to San Francisco and Sacramento to fill the order at the least cost? [http://www.sonoma.edu/users/w/wilsonst/Courses/Math_131/lp/default.html]

Q280. Explain these acronyms: NAD83, NAD27, OSGB

18. Deviance has multiple functions. Give a examples of deviation as (1) a pressure release valve; (2) innovation.

Q165. What's the difference between an "equation-based model" and an "agent model"? What are some other synonyms we might hear for these terms?

Q303. Show, in QGIS, how to select features individually and by radius, rectangle, etc.

Q279. Explain these acronyms: SQL, WMS, WGS84

Q84. If the weather is nice, plant a garden. Otherwise paint the office. For the garden, make a decision between flowers and vegetables. If you go for vegetables, buy compost, seeds, and stakes; till the soil, and hook up the irrigation. If it's flowers this year, go to the garden store and if they have 4 inch plants buy enough for the plot and plant them. If they don't then get flats of smaller plants and bring them home and let them get acclimated for a week and then plant them next week. To till the soil, if the ox is healthy, do it with the animal plow, otherwise get out the rototiller.

Q390. Explain what Weber means by charismatic authority.

Q63. Imagine a 10 x 10 square grid. Each cell can be empty…

Q349. Language is the paramount example of a SOCIAL phenomenon - the "code system" of language exists in our collective, shared consciousness and anyone who wishes to communicate has to participate in this. Use language and the acquisition and use of language to explain Mead's idea of taking the role of the other, the generalized other, etc.

Q8. Blank

Q71. Consider this little bit of logic that describes a tourist's thinking process (taken from the title of a 1970s movie): “if it’s Tuesday, this must be Belgium. Otherwise, I have no idea where we are.” Sketch a flowchart that represents this flow of thought.

Q363. Demonstrate your understanding of Weber's typology of social action in the context of this course by explaining this diagram.


Q471. This is one of a series of problems (469, 470, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands.

In your reports you mention Pareto and Kaldor-Hicks criteria. Your supervisor says you can't just refer to these – you need to explain (BRIEFLY) what they mean in everyday terms:

Q393. What does Weber mean by "social levelling"? (111)

Q78. Sketch a flow chart that represents the following writing protocol: (1) Edit your essay until it is perfect. (2) While the essay still needs work, edit your essay.

Q278. Explain these acronyms: PNG, TIF, geoTIF

Q118. The Westtown School committee is more generous. It agrees to a 5.5% cost-of-living increase per year, plus a one time only $200 adjustment for past sins of omission. How much would it be worth to teachers if the one time adjustment were made before the first COLA rather than after.

Q1 In connection with a program that provides alternatives for youth who have a run in with the criminal justice system, a colleague mentions that the program could be more effective if there were an easy way to predict who might benefit from the alternative program. The data suggests that about 75% of the youth in Ourtown are "good kids" who would benefit from the alternative program and 25% are "bad kids" who will not. Your supervisor also says you should come up with some more acceptable terms than "good" and "bad."

It turns out that when a kid is, in fact, "bad," the test gets it right 90% of the time, wrong 10%. But when the kid is, in fact, "good," the test says "bad" 30% of the time.12. Sketch an event tree that captures this and then flip the tree to evaluate the test and provide guidance on how to interpret its results.

Q253. Consider this network in which green agents are cooperators and violet are defectors and the cost of cooperating is 2 while the benefit of being cooperated with is 5. Where is the equilibrium is people's behavior changes based on their network experiences?


16. In some countries (and in some parts of this country) bus queues are more orderly and more common than in others. In other words, in some places people actually form a nice neat line starting at the spot where the bus will pull up so that people can board in exactly the order they arrived at the stop. What’s a common phrase for the norm used in such cases? Under what kinds of conditions would you expect strict queuing vs. more nonchalant “standing around”? Can you express the plusses and minuses in terms of deadweight loss and transaction costs?

Q259. What are the 5+2 means of achieving cooperation in the face of structural arrangements that "mandate" non-cooperation in human relationships?

Q403. In the excerpt from "The Origin of the State," Engels discusses the role of universal suffrage in the contemporary state. What role does he see the proletariat playing initially in this context? What trajectory does he suggest as the history unfolds?

Q4.Along with the alternative arrest program, a town is considering a mix of extra community policing, after school programs and evening youth programs as a part of their comprehensive efforts.

Proposals are on the table for three interventions, each of which can be implemented at different levels. Costs and benefits have been calculated by our crack accounting team and are shown in table form and chart form.

cba-mnb-table.gif cba-mnb-chart.gif

Q307. Find a color scheme using ColorBrewer and implement it on a polygon layer in QGIS.

Q292. Name these California counties.


Q65. Consider the document, "Plagiarism: Deterrence, Detection and Prevention" (a teaching manual for economics and business) by Jeremy B. Williams as an artifact. How would you classify the strategies for plagiarism prevention that it describes?

Q37. Centrality Problems

Q344. Cohen and Vandello offer a number of supporting findings in their work on culture of honor violence in the American south. Explain what's going on in each of these four summary tables and how this fits in with their analysis.

cohen-vandello-03-table.png cohen-vandello-04-table.png
cohen-vandello-05-table.png cohen-vandello-06-table.png

Q158. Suppose the following statements are true about the local housing market.

  1. On a month to month basis, 90% of mortgage payments are on time, 10% are late or missed.
  2. Of all the late/missed payments, 25% are back on track the following month. 65% are late again. 10% go into default.
  3. Of all mortgages in default in a given month, 20% have a work-out and return to good standing. 70% remain in default and 10% move into foreclosure.
  4. Of all houses in foreclosure each month, the banks manage to get 20% back on the market and resold.

Draw the transition diagram and write out the transition matrix.

Q297. With reference to the figures below, describe what the California State Plane System is.


Q382. "A central idea in the readings in this section is that government matters" (87). Extend this idea to say that "organizations matter" in an argument about why some hierarchy is needed if we are to cooperate in groups of more than a few to get things done.

Q368. A storyboard is a technique for graphically organizing the telling of a story. Think about how you would explain Durkheim's theory of collective representations (shared meaning) as a theory of how the human individual is a vehicle for the generation of social order. Imagine how you would represent the theory visually and how you would explain it textually.


Q135. Walk us through this diagram


Essay Question
The thinkers and theories we have briefly visited have taken a number of basic starting points: people basically good, bad, mixed; people never change; a small defect defines the entire person; biology is destiny. What’s your take on human nature? What kind of a thing is a person for the purposes of thinking about social control? Which readings or thinkers do you feel you line up with? Which ones do you seem to reject?

Q327. Our agency provides three types of client service: A, B, and C. And we have 3 kinds of staff: X, Y, and Z.

Each type A service requires 3 hours of an X staff member's time and 1 hour of a Y. Type B requires 2 X, 1 Y, and 3 Z hours. And type C requires 1 X, 3 Y, and 2 Z.

Currently we have 2 X, 1 Y and 1 Z on staff. We pay X's $25 per hour, Ys get $30 and Zs get $40. Assume everyone works a 35 hour week. At 35 hours per week our labor costs are 4200.

Revenue from type A service is $100, B is $200, and C is $300.

Regulations require that we serve at least 5 of each client type each week and that we serve at total of at least 21 clients each week.

What client mix will allow us to maximize revenue?

Excel Worksheet here.

Q76. Sketch a flowchart that represents this bit of logic: If I have anything that is due tomorrow then if I am acing the class already and if I have some money I’ll go out drinking by myself (since all my friends will be busy), but if I don’t have any money I’ll stay home and watch reruns on cable. If, on the other hand, I’m not acing this class, I’ll stay home and study. If I don’t have anything due tomorrow, then if I have some money I’ll see if some friends are around and if so I’ll party with them. Otherwise, I’ll drink alone. If I don’ t have any money I’ll just stay home and watch reruns on cable.

Q39. Cohesive subgroups problems

Q337. In "Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact" Ludwik Fleck starts out with the bold statement that "cognition is the most socially-conditioned activity…." Why is this a bold statement? What conventional assumption is he contradicting at the outset?

Q260. Explain how "group selection" can give rise to cooperative behavior in human society.

21. Coser combines the insight that sometimes deviance is functional (as well as harmful) with the insight that groups don’t always reject rule breakers to form a typology of four social control scenarios. Label the rows and columns of the 2x2 table to the right with the appropriate values.

Q113. Sketch a causal loop diagram for this system (be sure to label each link and the overall loop). Comment on the long term equilibrium of this system.

  • Being happy…
    1. …makes you to smile…
    2. …makes people approach you…
    3. …makes you feel social…
    4. …makes you happy…

Q417. In the context of game theory/prisoner's dilemma, what does "words are cheap" mean?

24. Donald Black described 6 styles of social control – penal, conciliatory, therapeutic, compensatory, prevention, and reform. Show that you understand what these are and how they fit into this course by considering the different styles of social control that might be employed in conflicts that could emerge between employee and employer or in the workplace in general..

Q469. This is one of a series of problems (470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands.

(a) As a part of its considerations about the park project, Ourville needs to think about the opportunity costs associated with each tract of land being considered for the park. What is an opportunity cost? You are nominated to explain (BRIEFLY) in terms the public will understand what we mean by opportunity cost:

(b) While discussing the value of the park options to residents the term "willingness to pay" comes up. Explain (BRIEFLY) to the public what this means.

Q180. Which of the cumulative frequency distributions below corresponds to this frequency distribution

A. cumfreq01.gif B. cumfreq02.gif C. cumfreq03.gif
D. cumfreq04.gif E. cumfreq05.gif

Q313. Create a point layer by importing a CSV file containing geographic coordinates.

Q329. Create for yourself a one page cheat-sheet/course summary illustration that captures what you have learned/want to take away from the course. Be prepared to show it at oral exam and explain it to instructor as if he were a fellow student who has not taken this course. This can take any form at all within the constraints of being no more than one sheet of paper. Just for fun, here are some examples from other courses: Social Theory, GIS, Social Control. Focus, of course, on content, not artistic flair.

Q145. Wordsmith:

There are different types of secrets, in this situation the secret is a dark secret which has to be kept from the audience forever. “These consist of facts about a team which it knows and conceals and which are incompatible with the image of self that the team attempts to maintain before its audience” (Goffman, 1959, p. 141).

Q359. Demonstrate your understanding of the Karl Marx excerpt and its connection to ideas about how the nature of the social individual is a "source" of social order by explaining this diagram. Use examples to illustrate your ideas.


Q202. (a) Set up the issue of whether to use the metric system or the English system of weights and measures as a coordination game. (b) Identify any equilibria and whether they are efficient or not. (c) If we are in the English/English cell, describe both players' motivations to unilaterally switch to metric. (d) what if we were in the metric/English cell?

Q395. Explain the following terms or phrases in the context of Paul Willis' Learning to Labour.

"an aimless air of insubordination" (124.4)
'ear'oles (124.9)
"universal taboo…yielding incriminating information…to those with formal power" (129.3)
"grassing" (129.4)

Q225. Your are the supervisor at a new after-school program. The program will serve 100 boys and 100 girls. Activities will include chess, games, and crafts. Materials, supervision, and the like have been priced out at $2/person for chess, $10/person for games, and $5 for crafts. Space needs are such that we can get 8 chess players at a table, 4 games players, or 2 crafters. The center has 50 tables. Solid research has shown that activity preferences among this population of children is somewhat gender specific. Boys and girls like chess the same but games are 70% girls and 30% boys while crafts tend to be 30% girls and 70% boys. What is the most economical division of activities subject to these constraints?

Q91. Sketch flow chart that captures logic of the following process.

Organization consists of intake personnel, counselors, followup social workers, and clerical staff.

When a new client contacts the organization intake personnel determine which of four types of case it is by asking two questions. If a client is returning having already been "typed" she is sent to the appropriate waiting room. Types 1 and 3 are referred to counselor A, type 2 to counselor B, type 4 to counselor C.
Client goes to waiting room until counselor is free. Sessions take 1 hour so the wait can be long. If more than one person waiting client is advised to go away and come back later.
In session, if the client is over 18 they get treatment protocol 1 otherwise they get treatment protocol 2.

Q175. Consider this data on the thresholds in a population. Draw a frequency histogram and cumulative frequency diagram. Plot the cumulative distribution on a chart with a 45 degree line.


Q430. At 239.4 Durkheim writes, "As a matter of fact, at every moment of history there is a dim perception, in the moral consciousness of societies, of the respective value of different social services [he means jobs, occupations, etc. not social work], the relative reward due to each, and the consequent degree of comfort appropriate on the average to workers in each occupation." Translate this into everyday English.

Q151. A cinema has a marquee with lots and lots of light bulbs. In any given week 1% of the light bulbs burn out. Unfortunately, between being busy and being sloppy, replacement is a little bit sporadic. Of all the bulbs that are burnt out, about 95% get replaced each week. Draw the state diagram for this system.

Q59. Consider the following things1 that can flow or move on a network:

Used books
Taught knowledge
Mooching friends/relatives
Workers (flowing among jobs)
Help/favors/acts of kindness

Categorize these in terms of four characteristics:

  1. The mechanics of diffusion: does diffusion occur via replication (copy mechanism) or transfer (move mechanism)?
  2. (applicable only to replication-based flows) Is the duplication is one at a time (serial), like giving a paperback to a friend, or simultaneous (parallel), like a radio broadcast.
  3. Does the traffic flow deliberately or blindly/randomly?
  4. Does the traffic revisit places it's already been? That is, is the flow on paths (no node repeats), trails (no edge repeats), or walks (visiting nodes and edges perhaps repeatedly).

Q461. Consider the task of building a logic model for a setting up an "academic excellence center" on campus. Brainstorm about resources, activities, outputs, and outcomes. For each category, give examples of too much detail, not enough detail, and just the right amount of detail for a straightforward logic model.

Q261. Explain these acronyms: DMS, EPSG, CRS

Q178. Which of the cumulative frequency distributions below corresponds to this frequency distribution

A. cumfreq01.gif B. cumfreq02.gif C. cumfreq03.gif
D. cumfreq04.gif E. cumfreq05.gif

Q115. There are no births in a Shaker community, only R recruits per year. The death rate is d. What is the difference equation that describes this situation?

Q150. Consider this passage and draft explication2. Work through it and suggest how you might improve it.

Text Explication
In "The Production of Consciousness," Marx (1845-1846) writes,“Men can be distinguished from the animals by consciousness, by religion, or by whatever one wants. They begin to distinguish themselves from the animals as soon as they begin to produce their means of life, a step which is determined by their physical organisation. In producing their means of life they indirectly produce their material life itself” (46). In other words, Marx is saying that the difference between a human being and an animal is that human beings have consciousness and work and contribute to production that allow them to produce their means of life; therefore, work is essential to humans’ interactions.

Q101. If the farmer plants early and the spring is warm, she can get a 20% increase in her harvest. But if she plants early and there's a late frost she can lose 50% of her harvest. Historically, these late frosts happen one year in four (25% of the time). Use a decision tree to determine how much she would be willing to invest in a perfect forecast.

Q298. Explain what's going on in this apparently distorted map


Q109. Each year the feral cat population grows by 3%. Let Cn be the number of cats n years from now. Assume there are presently 350. Write a difference equation that describes the cat population from year to year.

Q86. Sort clients into four categories promising, troubling, recalcitrant, hopeless on the basis of two tests which can be passed or failed.

Q296. (1) Read this thematic map. (2) Offer a critique of its graphic design.

Q234. Hayek is sometimes taken to be saying that the modern world throws up problems that are too complex to be handled by planning and policy making. Some things can be handled that way, but big and complex things cannot. What are the differences between the two types of order and the limitations and possibilities Hayek suggests each has and how does he get from there to social order?

17. Coser described several theorists whose work looked at "social control from the inside." What's the "technical term" for "social control from the inside"? Name three of these theorists and provide some identifying information (e.g., "Tongan psychotherapist who wrote in 1920s").

Q386. "…the state arose from the need to keep class antagonisms in check…." Attribute and explain.

Q419. What does Hayek mean by "teleological shorthand"?

The use of “purposive" in this sense as a sort of ‘teleological shorthand’, as it has been called by biologists, is unobjectionable so long as we do not imply an awareness of purpose on the part of the elements, but mean merely that the elements have acquired regularities of conduct conducive to the maintenance of the order — presumably because those who did act in certain ways had within the resulting order a better chance of survival than those who did not." (143.9)

Q152. Translate this description into a state diagram. A population consists of people who play it safe, and daredevils. From year to year, most (97%) safe-players stay that way, but 2% turn into daredevils. About 1% of the safe-players die each year. By contrast, 10% of daredevils die each year and another 10%, seeing that, switch to playing it safe. All the other daredevils stick with the program.

Label each of the states in as transient or absorbing.

Q463. (1) Write the equation for value, FV, of principal, PV, saved at interest rate R for N years (compounded annually).

(2) Suppose you know the future value in problem one and want to determine the present value. Solve the equation you wrote above for PV.

(3) Suppose I have a project that will deliver A dollars in one year, B dollars the second year and C dollars in the third year under a prevailing interest/discount rate of R. Write the equation for the present value of this project.

Q53. Practice constructing network survey instrument ("by hand"), administering and recording data.

  1. Sketch out (paper and pencil mode) a brief network questionnaire that includes
    1. Respondent name and a few demographics (e.g., sex and age)
    2. List of R's "confidantes"
  2. For each confidante we want to collect a bit of demographic info (e.g., sex and age)
  3. For each confidante we want to know whether R has particular activity tie (e.g., have you had dinner in the last week).
  4. Construct a grid that will let you record R's answers to whether for each pair of confidantes she has Xd with the two.
  5. Construct a grid that will let you record R's assessment of whether a particular relationship exists between each pair of confidantes.

Q448. Why is the Tocqueville selection in the "groups as a source of social order" section of the text?

Q445. What is the mechanism behind Tocqueville's endorsement of involvement in local politics as a way of building "the social" into citizens?

Q264. What is a datum?

Q120. My bathtub fills at 10 gallons per minute. It has a leak, though, whereby it loses 10% of it's volume per minute. It's a neat rectangular tub in which each 10 gallons is 2 inches of depth. How does it behave over time?

Q132. Create both a causal loop and a stock and flow diagram for a thermostat, heater, and house. The house is a stock of air. When its temperature goes below some threshold, hot air is added. All along though, hot air is subtracted (or cold air is added) through leaky windows and the like. But the temperature does not change immediately upon introduction of the hot air. What are the challenges of modeling this phenomenon discretely and how can we solve them?

Q117. The Westtown School committee is more generous. It agrees to a 5.5% cost-of-living increase per year, plus a one time only $200 adjustment for past sins of omission. Express this as a difference equation.

Q304. Open and explain attribute table. What are rows, what are columns? What do the controls along the bottom do? How do you sort rows? Change column width? Show only selected records? Select one or two rows and then reverse the selection.

Q439. Freud in "Civilization and Its Discontents" gives us a theory of how conscience arises and functions. In the selection on anomic suicide Durkheim gives an account of conscience as controlling our otherwise potentially infinite (and unsatisfiable) desires. Compare and contrast.

Q247. What's wrong with this flow chart? How would you fix it?


Q321.: Our consulting firm, NGOsRus, has developed a new organizational assay protocol to help characterize the financial health of community organizations. We have tested the instrument on many organizations whose financial well-being has been determined by other, much more expensive means. Here's what we know:

Healthy organizations pass the test 80% of the time but fail it 20% of the time. Unhealthy organizations fail the test 88% of the time but pass 12% of the time.

How likely is it that an organization that passes the test is, in fact, in good state financially?

Q192. A student wants to maximize her GPA. Three of her courses are required 3 credit courses and she estimates she will get a B in each. She has a choice between an easier 3 credit course that she can definitely get an A in and a slightly harder 4 credit course in which she expects a B+. What will she do?

Q25. Use NodeXL to reproduce the organizational chart below. Take note of the appearance of the network with various layout options. Try changing the type to "directed" in the chart panel of the NodeXL ribbon. What do you say about organizational charts as networks from examining the different layouts?

President VP1
President VP2
VP1 Mgr1
VP1 Mgr2
VP2 Staff1
Mgr2 Staff2
Mgr2 Staff3
Mgr2 Staff4

Q454. Consider the essay you wrote for the warm-up assignment at the start of this course on a film or book in which social order "disappeared." How would you re-write it in a manner that would show off some of what you learned in this course?

Q32. In addition to replicating the material in the text, we'll have a "and now try it with this" exercise. Self test at end. Can I : enter vertices and display graph? select an edge ? move the graph plane around? switch graph type between directed and undirected? change data and update graph? move vertices around "manually"? set vertex colors and sizes? use the autofill tool? add vertex labels? add tool tips? save a layout? save a data file?

Q211. Explicate and comment:

To put this differently: in a social order the particular circumstances to which each individual will react will be those known to him. But the individual responses to particular circumstances will result in an overall order only if the individuals obey such rules as will produce and order. Even a very limited similarity in their behavior may be sufficient if the rules which they all obey are such as to produce an order. Such an order will always constitute an adaptation to the multitude of circumstances which are known to all the members of that society taken together but which are not known as a whole to any one person (Hayek 1976: 147.7).

Q405. Weber says (103.5) that "rule over a considerable number of persons requires a staff…." If you read carefully you will see that the types of "authority" he is talking about refer to the leader's capacity to control and direct the staff as much as to the leader's capacity to dominate "the led." Discuss Weber's types of legitimate domination as forms of maintaining organizational integrity.

Q26. Amir likes Bashir. Chastity is liked by Danica. Chastity likes Ellen. Amir likes Danica and Ellen. Franke likes everyone. Gillian likes Danica. Ellen likes Bashir. Sketch this directed network.

Q130. In a "bathtub problem," why don't we include the water company or the sewer system to be stocks?

Q30. Write out your responses to the following.

  • Lists
  1. Name at least ten areas of human, social, natural phenomena that have been explored by network researchers.
  2. Identify/describe three networks you have encountered this week.
  3. Name at least five academic disciplines in which the study of networks has become a big deal.
  • Meta
  1. Newman, et al. mention "theoretical" work, "empirical" work, and modeling as activities associated with network science. What do you understand by each of these?
  2. Hansen, et al. (and to a lesser extent other authors here) suggest some grandiose assessments of network science's place in the history of science. Newman et al. hint at some tensions between the kind of data social scientists collect and the tools they have for analyzing them and the kind of data used in the "new science of networks" and the tools brought to the task by physicists and computer scientists. Can you zero in on the passages and identify some of the issues?
  3. In sections 1.6-8, Hansen et al. describe applications of social media to public problems, crowdsourcing, and problems of engagement, mentioning, eventually, the term "sociotechnical systems." Meditate a bit on the dual answers this suggests to the question "how can I use my degree in sociology (or whatever your major is)?" — either studying how technology changes the world or being actively involved in designing things that can change the world.
  • Real World
  1. From how many realms do your facebook friends come? Estimate the macro-structure of your facebook network just based on thinking about it. How does it show the different social circles you are a member of? How does it show your different "sides"? How does it show your personal biography? How big do you think the different clusters are? Can you think of people who link the different clusters together?

Q99. We want to apply for a home equity line of credit. The bank says it has to know what your house is worth (It has to be worth a certain amount over what we still owe on the mortgage to get a loan at a good rate). A loan at a bad rate will cost $10,000 more than a loan at a good rate. We think there is a 60:40 chance that our house is in fact worth enough to get a good rate. We have a choice between a cheap appraisal ($100) and an expensive appraisal ($1000). A cheap appraisal, we have learned, has a 40% chance of correctly valuing a property. An expensive appraisal is right 70% of the time. Draw a decision tree that will help us figure out what to do.

Q181. Which threshold frequency distribution corresponds to the following description:

This population is divided between those who are very easily persuaded to participate - they will jump on bandwagon readily - and people who are very reticent to join a movement, with relatively few people in between.

A. histogram01.gif B. histogram02.gif C. histogram03.gif
D. histogram04.gif E. histogram05.gif

Q51. To transpose a matrix we simply swap its rows and columns:

> > > > A D G


> > > > A D

If the matrix is called $M$ then we write the transpose of M as $tr(M)$.

Transpose these three matrices

0 1 0 2
1 0 3 1
0 3 0 4
2 1 4 0
1 1 0
0 1 1
1 0 1

Q375. Hobbes and Engels both give us a vision of the state. Hechter and Horne suggest that "Instead of a world made up of equal individuals, Engels's starting point is a society made up of unequal classes." Show what you know about Hobbes and Engels but explaining this statement.

Q380. Compare patrimonialism, bureaucracy, and charismatic authority in terms of the efficiency of maintaining order and ensuring loyalty among a leader's staff.

Q269. Explain longitude, latitude, parallels, meridians

Q389. Explain what Weber means by traditional authority.

Q81. Is a picture worth 548 words? Convert the Rock County, Wisconsin "Drug Court Flow Chart" from text form to diagram form.

  1. District Attorney and Defense Attorney present to Judge in assigned Criminal Court a completed Rock County Drug Court Contract and a copy of the defendant’s criminal history (either NCIC Report or CCAP Record of Convictions).
  2. Criminal Court Judge determines the defendant may be eligible for Drug Court so the matter is continued for two (2) weeks before the same court. Judge orders defendant to attend an initial screening at the offices of the Rock County Community RECAP Program, 303 W. Court Street, Janesville, WI on the following Tuesday.
  3. Court Attendant for the Criminal Court will then immediately photocopy the completed Drug Court Contract, the defendant’s criminal record (either NCIC or CCAP), and the criminal complaint in the present matter and place them in an envelope and put it in the mailbox of the Community RECAP Program that is located in the Courthouse mailroom.
  4. The Court Attendant will daily FAX a list of the defendants referred the Community RECAP Program, providing the defendant’s name, date of birth, and case number. This will be FAXed daily to (608)743-1759 to provide that office with a list of the defendants they should expect the following Tuesday for the initial screening.
  5. Upon completion of the initial screening the Community RECAP office will FAX to the Criminal Court a document indicating the completion of the initial screening and whether the defendant is qualified for the Drug Court. If the defendant is eligible, the Community RECAP office will provide the defendant with an appointment date (scheduled after his next scheduled return to the Criminal court) for completion of the intake process and to complete a full assessment of the defendants needs. The defendant will also be scheduled with an initial date for first appearance at Drug Court. This information will also be contained in the FAX sent to the Criminal court.
  6. After the initial screening, the defendant returns to the Criminal Court. If the Community RECAP FAX (from #5 above) has been received by the court and it indicates that the defendant is eligible for the Drug Court, then the Criminal Court will take the plea to the original charge but will withhold a finding of guilt. The Court will then order the clerk to place the file in status “Deferred Pending”, continue bond and order the defendant to the Drug Court appearance indicated on that FAX.
  7. The Court Attendant will then photocopy the following documents, place them in an envelope, and forward them to Judge John Roethe of the Drug Court as these documents will constitute the Drug Court file:
    1. Criminal complaint,
    2. Completed Drug Court Contract,
    3. NCIC or CCAP criminal history of the defendant,
    4. Community RECAP Program FAX indicating the completion of the initial screening and initial date for first appearance before the Drug Court.
  8. The matter will not return to the Criminal Court until the defendant either successfully completes the program or is removed from the program. If the defendant successfully completed the program the court will implement the agreement outlined in the Drug Court Contract. If for any reason the defendant fails to complete the program the defendant’s original plea will be perfected the entry of a finding of guilt and the matter will proceed to sentencing on the original charge.

Q272. Explain/illustrate what these geoprocessing operations do: clip, intersection, union, difference, buffer, convex hull, symmetric difference.

Q372. Explain the difference between cooperation and coordination as we are using them in this course. Give examples to support your explanation.

Q58. Consider these examples of claimsmaking…

Q451. If the phenomenon described by Centola et al. is common, what are the implications for Schelling's critical mass and tipping models?

Q354. In "Dissecting the Social," what does Hedstrom mean by "realism" (14.9)? How is does this compare to Durkheim's dictum to "treat social facts as things"?

Q300. You have been hired as a consultant to estimate the effects of a new criminal offender registry law that prohibits individuals on the registry from living within 1000 meters of a school. You are asked to

  • Make a map showing all areas that are off-limits to registered offenders
  • Calculate about how much of the city's rental market is off-limits to registered offenders based on this law.

You have

  • a point layer with school locations
  • a street layer
  • a census blockgroup layer with information on number of rental units (or at least renter occupied units as of the last census)

Q29. Consider the series below showing the maximum number of edges (m) possible in networks with different numbers of vertices (n). Come up with a general formula for m in terms of n (that is, for a network with n vertices, what is the maximum number of edges — assuming no self-edges and no multi-edges?).


Q309. Demonstrate that you know you way around the Print Composer.

Q348. At 63.2 (in Hechter and Horne reader) Mead says there are two stages in the development of the social self. First the organization of particular attitudes of particular others toward oneself. Second is characterized by "an organization of the social attitudes of the generalized other or the social group…." Although we usually interpret this in terms of the development of a social self in children, we can use it to describe our joining of any new group or social environment. Explain what this means using an example of an individual's socialization into some concrete scene of your own conjuring.

Q306. Create custom labels based on two fields for a polygon layer.

Q43. Based on your reading of Erikson, Becker, et al., write a short essay addressing one of the following.

  1. A 50 year old social scientist says "when I was in college, there was no date rape." Explain what a sociologist would mean by this.
  2. Consider the comments below about the experience of a patient in a mental hospital.
  3. Is the medical clarification of heretofore "invisible" disabilities an unqualified good?

Q74. Sketch a flowchart that represents this bit of logic: “if the balance is less than the minimum alternative payment then just pay the balance, otherwise, pay the minimum alternative payment.”

Q198. What is "tit-for-tat" and why, according to Robert Axelrod, is it so effective?

Q470. This is one of a series of problems (469, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands.

One part of the staff report talks about discounting. A resident asks "where do discount rates come from?" Your (BRIEF) answer:

Q133. College is a more or less four year endeavor but students come and go on different schedules. Sketch a stock and flow model that shows freshwomen applicants coming from the cloud, admitted students from applicants, and freshwomen from the admittees. Then freshwomen become sophomores, mostly, but there is some attrition. And so on through the other years. Sketch a stock and flow diagram that follows students through four years and think up some variables that might affect the flows between the different years. For this problem, you should try wearing the hat of an academic administrator who is interested in the problems of "retention" and "degree completion."

Q184. A campaign director is flying blind. Two tossup states both have 20 electoral votes. All current information is that the chances of winning in each is 50:50.

Draw the event tree that describes the possible election outcomes.

Our campaign director has the opportunity to do one last ad buy of $1 million. Research and experience have shown that an ad buy in a right state where a significant portion of the electorate is still open minded could shift the odds of winning to 60/40. How do we know? We've done lots of audience research that shows how particular electorates respond to this ad's approach. But doing the ad buy in the wrong state (one where folks have really made up their minds) will have no effect on the outcome. What we don't know is which, if either, of these states is the best fit for this type of campaigning.

Draw this decision tree.

Now suppose there is a poll she could do to find out whether state A or state B is the more promising state for the new ad. There is a 50% chance the poll says state A and a 50% chance it says state B. If it says state A then you do the ad buy there and you are certain to increase your chances while things in B stay the same. And vice versa.

What is the value of the information the poll can provide, in electoral votes?

Q361. In the public goods game described by Fehr and Gintis, explain why we impose a cost on the punishER for each punishment issued. What does willingness to impose a punishment despite a cost suggest about the actor who does so?

Q311. Show that you know your way around how QGIS lets you create a new vector layer of polygons, points, or lines.

Q11. “Zero tolerance” is a popular cry these days, but does it always make sense? It is certainly a powerful symbolic statement, but it presents problems. Consider the diagram below and discuss the idea of zero tolerance in terms of marginal costs and benefits.


Q31. Demonstrate basic familiarity with email, wikis, Twitter, Facebook, newsgroups, listserves.

Q262. Explain the difference between equal interval, quantile, natural break, and standard deviation as classification methods If your data looked like this, and you have 5 class intervals, what would they be if you used each method?


Q318. What does the indicatrix on this Fuller projection or "Dymaxion" map tell you about this projection (which projects the globe onto an icosohedron and then unfolds the solid figure)?


Q388. Explain what Weber means by legal authority.

Q42. Data Collection Problem

  • Seeing two mode networks (when do we encounter these in the reading?)
  • Grab some data from an online source.
  • Use NodeXL to grab some automatically.
  • Class exercise on CSS.

Q476. This is one of a series of problems (469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 477, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands.

The Ourville Alliance, a neighborhood group whose members include several MPPs, likes decision trees. And they think the benefits of the different park options are not certain. In fact, they think that Option A has a 75% chance of a net benefit of 60 and a 25% chance of being a bust and having a net benefit of only 20. By comparison, Option B has a 90% chance of having a net benefit of 50 and a 10% chance of a net benefit of only 10. Sketch in details, labels, etc. on this decision tree as necessary. What do you recommend and why?


Q161. Comment on and improve upon the following text explication

Text Explication
“Whether an individual construes (language) as truth or error, understands it correctly or not, a set of findings meander throughout the community, becoming polished, transformed, reinforced or attenuated, while influencing other findings, concept formation, opinions, and habits of thought” (56). Thus, Fleck argues, language creates thought collectives. A thought collective is defined as a community of persons mutually exchanging ideas or maintaining intellectual interaction. Fleck believes that through the use of language, human’s form thought collectives with others whom they wish to share ideas with. With a sense of shared meaning evolves a sense of coordination.

Q266. What is interpolation and how do heat maps work?

Q308. Take a basic thematic map of Oakland, set up a print composer, and add graticule and customize annotations.

Q429. Briefly explain Freud's theory of where guilt comes from.

Q96. A college enrolls two types of students. Full-pay students pay $40K tuition and half-pay students pay $20K. At present the school spends $1 million per year to recruit 200 students about 75% of whom are half-pay and 25% full-pay. A consultant submits a proposal to shift resources around and use GIS to target recruitment at zip codes that are more likely to yield full-pay students. She says there is a 75% chance that the results will be a slightly smaller class (190) but one with 40% full-pay and 60% half-pay. Unfortunately there is also a risk things won't turn out so well. There's a 25% chance that enrollment will drop to 170 and only 30% will be full pay. Use a decision tree to advise the college as to its best course of action.

Q82. Flow chart the following protocols. (a) Record youth name and address. Check in system to see if already there. If there, pull up record and verify information. If not, create new record and ask for information. When done, send record to orientation staff, give youth a number and instruct to wait until number is called. (b) Once stage three in the treatment regimen is completed, clients are not eligible for the next stage in treatment until they have had three consecutive clean weekly drug tests. If they have one failed test they are given a warning. Two failed tests in a row and they have to meet with a counselor. Three failed tests and they are out of the program.

Q466. A state agency is considering a childcare subsidy that would facilitate single parents attainment of college degrees. The benefit would cost $10k per recipient per year for four years. The expectation is that individuals with a college degree will earn more than individuals without a college degree. This means that they generate more revenue in the form of income tax. They are also less likely to require government assistance of various kinds — call this amount A. Assume current rules limit us to a ten year time horizon. Assume the average salary difference between non-college grads and college grads is D (but get the real info here) and that the marginal tax rate can be found here. Assume a 5% discount rate. For the purposes of this problem, we will ignore inflation.

Q462. Sketch a logic model for buying a house.

Q443. Define:
supra-physical (234.5)
raison d'être (234.7)
(instinct) acquits (itself) (234.8)
(collective) asthenia (236.2)

Q170. Suppose you have a population of one hundred persons. It is divided into five categories of willingness to join a protest all of which depend on people's expectations of how many others will appear at the protest. The thresholds range from very low (I'll go if anyone else is going) to the very high (I won't go unless basically everybody else is going).

Assume the population is divided among these categories as follows:

Challenge of Recruiting Very Easy Easy Average Hard Very Hard
Participation Threshold 1 10 40 60 99
Number at this threshold 10 20 40 20 10

a. If news reports suggest that 15 people will show up, how many actually will?

b. If last week saw participation of 41 and this is widely reported so that everyone knows, how many will come out this week? And then next week? And after that?

c. What if 91 came last week?

Q351. Define cooperation and give five examples where you have seen it (or its absence) recently.

Q188. "Women's issues" have been talked about a lot in the 2012 presidential campaigns. One issue has been the hiring of women in leadership positions in society. Draw a causal loop diagram to represent the following relationships.

The more "gender bias" the fewer qualified women there will be.
More qualified women means more women in positions of power.
The more women in power, the less "gender bias" in society.

Assuming we start with social bias and not many women in positions of power, how is this system likely to behave?

Now let's modify things a bit. Let's suppose we solve the "supply" problem and break the link between bias and the number of qualified women and that the latter grows significantly. We change our model slightly:

Societal bias produces social blindness to existence of qualified women.
This social blindness means fewer women will be in the pool that is considered for positions of power.
The fewer women in the pool, the fewer end up in positions of power.
And, as before, the more (fewer) women in power, the less (more) "gender bias" in society.

Draw this causal model.

Now let's add another causal relation: the fewer women in positions of power, the more NGOs emerge to promote women's participation in government, etc. The NGOs hit on a strategy called that the men in power call "binders of women" — whereby they do the legwork needed to show the men the qualified women that their bias made them blind to.

Add the NGOs and the binders to our causal model. Identify a balancing loop that might portend the achievement of improved gender diversity in positions of power.

Q352. Explain what Hedstrom ("Dissecting the Social") meant when he said "differences in some social states or events are considered explained if the decomposition eliminates them" (13.8)?

Q249. Translate each of the flow charts below into everyday English.

Q312. Join a csv data file to a vector shape file.

Q110. Each year the feral cat population grows by 3%. Let Cn be the number of cats n years from now. Assume there are presently 350. Suppose that each year we catch and euthanize or place in homes 20 cats. Write the equations for this situation.

Q36. Consider the graph matrix below

A - 0 1 0 1
B 0 - 0 1 1
C 0 1 - 1 1
D 0 0 1 - 0
E 0 1 1 1 -
  1. We use $n$ for the number of vertices. What is $n$ here?
  2. What is $\sum _{ i=1 }^{ n }{ { A }_{ i4 } }$?
  3. What is $\sum _{ j=1 }^{ n }{ { A }_{ 3j } }$?
\begin{align} \sum _{ i=1 }^{ n }{ { A }_{ i4 } } \end{align}

Q401. What does Weber mean by legitimacy?

Q183. In the election between candidate A and candidate B, for voter X it comes down to what the candidate will do for the elderly. The election is a toss-up and it may well come down to X's vote. Research indicates that candidate A is quite likely (75% chance) to do 4 things for the elderly but many only end up doing one thing (25% chance). Candidate B, on the other hand, is very unlikely to do 4 things (10%) but is 90% likely to do 2 things. For whom should X vote if this is the deciding issue.

0005.The community is also trying to create a neighborhood resident association. Ten members are recruited each month through posters put up in the community. In addition, each member typically recruits 1 new member every five months (that is, about 0.2 new members per member per month). And finally, attrition seems to run at about 40% per month.

  • What are the "rates"? What are the "amounts"?
  • Write the difference equation in general form (Pn+1=aPn + b)
  • Label the diagram below as fully as you can.
  • What is the equilibrium value? Is it a stable or unstable equilibrium? How can you tell?
  • Label this chart as fully as possible and then explain what it shows.

Q172. Consider this data on the thresholds in a population. Draw a frequency histogram and cumulative frequency diagram. If news reports suggest participation will be at 20 people, how many people's threshold is met or exceeded? How about if the number is 70?


Q157. Sketch the transition matrix that corresponds to the following diagram


Q9. Blank

Q12. Erikson writes “…the very expression ‘he is a thief’ or ‘he is an addict’ seems to provide at once a description of his position in society and a profile of his character.” How is this relevant for understanding one of the main points of the Rosenhan article?

Q418. Context and explication, please: "if the future is important, there is no one best strategy."

If the discount parameter, w, is sufficiently high, there is no best strategy independent of the strategy used by the other player.

Q335. Consider Marx on the production of consciousness. How important does the kind of work seem to be as over against the kinds interaction among people who do the same kind of work for Marx? Compare, perhaps, Uber drivers and fast food workers. Would Marx expect less or a different kind of shared consciousness among the one or the other?

Q305. Open properties dialog for a vector layer and explain briefly what the Styles, Labels, Fields, Metadata, and Joins tabs are for.

Q218. Explicate and comment:

The result was another victory for TIT FOR TAT! The analysis of the data from these tournaments reveals four properties which tend to make a decision rule successful: avoidance of unnecessary conflict by cooperating as long as the other player does, provocability in the face of an uncalled for defection by the other, forgiveness after responding to a provocation, and clarity of behavior so that the other player can adapt to your pattern of action.

These results from the tournaments demonstrate that under suitable conditions, cooperation can indeed emerge in a world of egoists without central authority (Axelrod 1984: 184.5).

Q420. Explain why Paul Willis' "Learning to Labour" was a reading in the hierarchy section of this course.

Q433. Discuss how one might be "content" with one's inequality in a society where:

  • status is based on heredity
  • a program is in place to give everyone an equal start (imagine whatever's needed for this)
  • a strictly equal opportunity meritocratic society
  • a society with every imaginable balancing of privilege

Q210. Explicate and comment:

This means that, though the use of spontaneous ordering forces enables us to induce the formation of an order of such a degree of complexity (namely comprising elements of such numbers, diversity and variety of conditions) as we could never master intellectually, or deliberately arrange, we will have less power over the details of such an order than we would of one which we produce by arrangement. In the case of spontaneous orders we may, by determining some of the factors which shape them, determine their abstract features, but we will have to leave the particulars to circumstances which we do not know. Thus, by relying on the spontaneously ordering forces, we can extend the scope or range of the order which we may induce to form, precisely because its particular manifestation will depend on many more circumstances than can be known to us-and in the case of a social order, because such an order will utilize the separate knowledge of all its several members, without this knowledge ever being concentrated in a single mind, or being subject to those processes of deliberate coordination and adaptation which a mind performs (Hayek 1976: 145.5-7).

Q191. A voter has an objective function which is to minimize the difference between her positions on two issues and those of the candidates. Here positions can be described as a 3 on issue A and an 8 on issue B. Candidate 1 has positions -2 and 9 while candidate 2 has positions 4 and 4. For whom will the voter cast her ballot?

Q274. Fill in the names of the "districts" in Oakland.


Q185. Sketch a causal loop diagram for these two systems (be sure to label each link and the overall loop). Comment on the long term equilibrium of this system.

  • Being pro candidate X…
    1. …makes you give money…
    2. …makes the campaign send you emails…
    3. …makes you want to go to a rally…
    4. …makes pro candidate X…
  • Being pro candidate X…
    1. …makes you give money…
    2. …makes the campaign send you emails…
    3. …makes you get fed up with the campaign…
    4. …makes you a little sour on candidate X…
  • Not hearing much from the campaign…
    1. …makes you miss your candidate
    2. …makes you feel more pro candidate X

Q64. We'll use data on early 20th century Scottish industries to investigate interlocking directorates.

(From Pajek data online) This dataset contains the corporate interlocks in Scotland in the beginning of the twentieth century (1904-5). In the nineteenth century, the industrial revolution brought Scotland railways and industrialization, especially heavy industry and textile industry. The amount of capital needed for these large scale undertakings exceeded the means of private families, so joint stock companies were established, which could raise the required capital. Joint stock companies are owned by the shareholders, who are represented by a board of directors. This opens up the possibility of interlocking directorates. By the end of the nineteenth century, joint stock companies had become the predominant form of business enterprise at the expense of private family businesses. Families, however, still exercised control through ownership and directorships.

The data are taken from the book The Anatomy of Scottish Capital by John Scott and Michael Hughes. It lists the (136) multiple directors of the 108 largest joint stock companies in Scotland in 1904-5: 64 non-financial firms, 8 banks, 14 insurance companies, and 22 investment and property companies (Scotland.net). In this dataset, which was compiled from the Appendix of Scott & Hughes' book, note that two multiple directors (W.S. Fraser and C.D. Menzies) are affiliated with just one board so they are not multiple directors in the strict sense.
The companies are classified according to industry type: 1 - oil & mining, 2 - railway, 3 - engineering & steel, 4 - electricity & chemicals, 5 - domestic products, 6 - banks, 7 - insurance, and 8 - investment. In addition, there is a vector specifying the total capital or deposits of the firms in 1,000 pound sterling.


John Scott & Michael Hughes, The anatomy of Scottish capital: Scottish companies and Scottish capital, 1900-1979 (London: Croom Helm, 1980).
W. de Nooy, A. Mrvar, & V. Batagelj, Exploratory Social Network Analysis with Pajek (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), Chapter 5.


Original authors: are John Paul Scott (1949) (ku.ca.xesse|jttocs#ku.ca.xesse|jttocs, University of Essex) & Michael Hughes (1947, University of Lancaster in 1980, not listed now).
Data compiled into Pajek data files by W. de Nooy, 2001

Use NodeXL to visualize this data. The data is in three network datasets: a bipartite network of people and companies (edges represent a person being a director of a company); a network of people (the edges are co-membership in companies); and a network of companies (edges are sharing a director).

Task 1: Create a preliminary two mode visualization that shows people as small circles and companies as larger squares. Try different layouts (including manually assisted) and produce the best visualization you can (in a reasonable amount of time). Can you color the companies by industry? Are there individuals who appear to be bridges between industries? Or who appear to be kingpins in a particular industry?

Task 2: Do a quick exploration of the people by people network. Try different visualizations. Calculate graph metrics. It might clarify the visualization if you use dynamic filtering to discard barely connected individuals. Change node size by graph metric. Can you identify a class of apparently important people? Try clustering.

Task 3: Now look at company by company network. Cluster, color, explore. How much do network clusters follow industry? Are there cluster bridging companies? Are you surprised at what they are.

Turn in short paper that shows your explorations.

The data is in the following Excel files.

No files attached to this page.

Q330. Equilibrium came up many times in this course. Briefly catalog several and describe the concept and its importance. Be sure you can address (1) whether it is a normative concept (2) stable vs. unstable (3) different examples.

Q431. Discuss the relationship between "desires" and "means," ambitions and expectations, contentment and aspiration that characterize the NON-anomic equilibrium that society can provide.

Q155. Suppose 25% of the mortgages written in the first years of this century were subprime (meaning the borrowers were not very credit-worthy) and all were 5 year adjustable such that after the fifth year the monthly payments would go way up. In the market in question there is approximately 5% turnover housing each year. The housing stock in the market consists of one million units. Research has shown that 33 1/3% of subprime adjustable mortgages go into default under current conditions when they go past their five year mark (and these conditions are expected to continue for some time) when they adjust.

Q144. Wordsmith this passage

In the second chapter of his book Goffman elaborates on the concept of teams. He refers to “team performance” as “teams” and it is “to refer to any set of individuals who co-operate in staging a single routine” (Goffman, 1959, 79). In other words Goffman’s concept of a team is a group of people that are adhering and working towards the same goal.


Q263. Explain/illustrate the idea of 1+1=3.

Q364. Thinking back to the Kanazawa article on evolutionary biology, use this diagram to talk about at least six different ideas from this course.


Q252. Consider this network in which green agents are cooperators and violet are defectors and the cost of cooperating is 2 while the benefit of being cooperated with is 5. Where is the equilibrium is people's behavior changes based on their network experiences?



No files attached to this page.

Q416. Explain what we mean by distinguishing a one-shot PD from an iterated PD and why this is important.

Q322. Say what's wrong with these flow charts and redraw them correctly.

flowchart-bad-01a.png flowchart-bad-02a.png flowchart-bad-03a.png

Q336. What does Ludwick Fleck mean by a "thought collective"?

Q217. Sociologists and anthropologists gripe endlessly about rational actor models, failing, over and over again, to understand that they are MODELS, not descriptions. Explicate and comment on this passage to show that you understand what the value of a model like prisoner's dilemma is for social theory.

The Cooperation Theory that is presented…is based upon an investigation of individuals who pursue their own self-interest without the aid of a central authority to force them to cooperate with each other. The reason for assuming self-interest is that it allows an examination of the difficult case in which cooperation is not completely based upon a concern for others or upon the welfare of the group as a whole. It must, however, be stressed that this assumption is actually much less restrictive than it appears. … So the assumption of self interest is really just an assumption that concern for others does not completely solve the problem of when to cooperate with them and when not to (Axelrod 1984: 177.2).

Q104. House gets another case. There's this funny rash. We won't say where it appears, but it's a funny rash. In 1% of the cases, it means something really, really bad — anxoreisis. Fortunately, there's a test. Unfortunately, it's not a perfect test. Fortunately, it's a pretty good test. Unfortunately, it is wrong 2% of the time. Work it out.

Q195. Complete or paraphrase the passage that begins "It is not from the beneficence of the baker…." Who said it? In what context? What does it mean?

Q55. Consider this adjacency matrix. Following standard conventions, calculate in- and out-degree for each vertex.

A - 0 1 0 1
B 0 - 0 1 1
C 0 1 - 1 1
D 0 0 1 - 0
E 0 1 1 1 -

20. Explain what is meant by "social control as a dependent variable."

Q369. A storyboard is a technique for graphically organizing the telling of a story. Think about how you would explain Fleck's theory of thought communities as a theory of how the human individual is a vehicle for the generation of social order. Imagine how you would represent the theory visually and how you would explain it textually.


Q381. Convert penultimate paragraph of Hechter & Horne's introduction into a table that summarizes the theories in this section. Start with their suggestion that each theory has some group dominating others and each has different process leading to this and different consequences deriving from it.

"Each of the readings in this section argues…. from generation to generation."

Q197. Explain and give an example of a dominant strategy in a prisoner's dilemma game.

Q62. Using the course page on Corporate Persons as your jumping off point, search for information on the current state of the "overturn citizens united" or "anti-corporate person" campaign in each of your states. The first installment of the assignment is a very quick overview of each state.

You might include

  1. Name and party of current governor
  2. Makeup of state legislature
  3. Party makeup of congressional delegation
  4. Weblinks to any Occupy organizations in the state?
  5. Do any of the national efforts appear to have a base in the state?
  6. Is there a homegrown effort.

In all cases, document as much as you can with URLS, etc.

NLA West Virginia (WV) Wisconsin (WI) Wyoming (WY)
ANB Alabama (AL) Pennsylvania (PA) Vermont (VT)
REB Illinois (IL) Maryland (MD) Massachusetts (MA)
RKB Rhode Island (RI) Washington D.C (DC) South Carolina (SC)
VGB Georgia (GA) New Hampshire (NH) New Jersey (NJ)
AJC Connecticut (CT) Virginia (VA) Washington (WA)
KAD Montana (MT) New York (NY) North Carolina (NC)
AGO Indiana (IN) Iowa (IA) Missouri (MO)
MTI Alaska (AK) North Dakota (ND) Ohio (OH)
CAM Arizona (AZ) Arkansas (AR) Texas (TX)
AEM Utah (UT) Oklahoma (OK) Oregon (OR)
NRR Colorado (CO) Delaware (DE) Florida (FL)
DJR South Dakota (SD) Tennessee (TN) Nebraska (NE)
DNS Minnesota (MN) Kansas (KS) Kentucky (KY)
LJT Michigan (MI) New Mexico (NM) Nevada (NV)
CEW Hawaii (HI) Idaho (ID) California (CA)
PYW Louisiana (LA) Maine (ME) Mississippi (MS)

Reference Material

Occupy Sites
NYTimes on CU Decision 21 Jan 2010
ACLU Amicus Brief

Click HERE to edit our googledoc or you can do it in the window below (though that might be a bit klunky).

Q256. Consider the collective action model described in Lecture 17.4: Collective Action and Common Pool Resource Problems where $x_j$ is the cost to me to "pitch in" and do my part in some collective effort. Each member of the collective reaps benefits from the contributions of those who decide to pitch in. In particular, they receive some fraction $\beta$ of all the contributions. Their net benefit is thus, this amount minus the effort they contribute. In other words,

\begin{align} Payoff_j = -x_j + \beta \sum x_i \end{align}

Suppose you are in a class of 21 students and everyone is expected to prepare for class in a manner that costs 1 unit of life. In the class itself, things go much better when people are prepared and we estimate that the benefit a student derives from the class is equal to 0.2 units of life for each person who comes prepared.

(a) What is your net payoff if you do the reading half the class rest of the class comes prepared too?
(b) What is the benefit to a shirker under the same conditions?
(c) How many people do you need to think are going to do the reading to make it worth it to do the reading?

Q46. Play with Yasiv's Amazon Recommendation Visualizer. After you have played with it for a bit, carry out some specific "analyses" (we use the term loosely here).

Select a book — my example will be The Fountainhead by Ayn Rand, a favorite of libertarians and right wingers. Jostle the network around until you get a nice layout that has settled down. You might want to zoom in or out (mouse wheel if you have one).

Copy screen image to clipboard with alt-F14 or alt-PrtScn, open a Word document and paste. Crop the picture (Picture Tools>Format>Crop), unselect it, reselect it and stretch to fill page.

Examine clusters. Now select the picture and Cut it (control-X) and then Insert>Shapes>New Drawing Canvas, expand the canvas to be page-sized, and paste the picture. Then use the circle tool to draw circles around the identifiable clusters.


Now let's create a new drawing canvas and sketch this network of clusters.


And then we will examine the books qualitatively — back on the web interface — to come up with coarse descriptions of the clusters.


Finally, we inquire as to what connections the inter-cluster edges represent, like this:

And ueber-finally, let's prepare this network for data entry in NodeXL
Vertex1 Vertex2
creativity innovation
innovation Pirsig-education
innovation Rand-novels
Rand-novels Rand-videos-etc
Rand-novels Rand-philosophy

Enter Data into NodeXL

  1. Start on the vertices tab and enter vertex 1 in column A, vertex 2 in column B.
  2. Click on refresh graph.
  3. Moving nodes and graph.
  4. Set layout to none.
  5. Vertex labels, vertex size. Refresh.
  6. Add edge labels for an edge or two. Refresh.
  7. Vertex label position.
  8. Copy to clipboard. Paste into writeup document.


The hot book in higher education, Academically Adrift.
The Real Mitt Romney]
Steve Jobs' biography
Moneyball by Michael Lewis
Easy Riders, Raging Bulls: How the Sex-Drugs-and-Rock 'N' Roll Generation Saved Hollywood
Caro Emerald's album Scenes from the Cutting Room Floor
Omnivores Dilemma
Fast Food Nation
City: Urbanism and Its End
President Obama's Audacity of Hope
The Art of Computer Programming by Donald Knuth
C Programming
The Future of the Internet and How to Stop It

Q47. Use NodeXL to visualize the following networks

Node List
A, B, C, E
B, A, C, F
C, A, D
D, B, E, F
E, B, F
F, A, D, E

Edge List

A, B
A, C
A, E
B, A
C, A
C, B,
C, D
D, B
D, E
D, F
E, F
F, B
F, C
F, D

Full Matrix

A - 1 0 0 0 1
B - 0 0 1 1
C - 1 1 1
D - 1 0
E - 0
F -

0007. Blank

Q38. Homophily Problems

Q268. Projections: explain the terms cylindrical, conical, azimuthal, conformal, equal-area in conjunction with map projections and coordinate systems

Q129. Draw a stock and flow diagram for filling up a bathtub for a baby (or yourself!). You have a faucet that you can turn more towards hot or toward cold. Be sure to show the flows, the stocks, the sources of information, the "valves," and the rules that govern the valves in this system.

Q35. A researcher asks a respondent, Maria, to list her six closest friends. She says A, B, C, D, E, and F. The researcher then asks which of these friends have you had dinner with in the last week? A, C, D. Which ones have you texted today? A, B, D, F. Which ones did you know before you came to this school? C, D. On whose wall have you posted in the last week? D, E, F.

Show how this information would be recorded in your field notes.

Q457. The overall logic of the final section of the course was that groups can promote social order through internalization of norms and provision of incentives. Explain how each of these work and what the difference is using at least one thinker to illustrate each.

Q426. Weber's definition, please:

traditional authority
rational legal authority
charismatic authority

Q95. You never know what the weather is going to be around here. Somedays you need a sweater and some days you need sunglasses. The smart person, they say, always brings both. But suppose there is a definite hassle involved in bringing either (e.g., you ride a bike and space is tight). Sketch a decision tree that takes into account a cost to bringing either and a cost to not having either when you need them and the possibility that on a given day you might need one, the other, or both. Use plausible numbers of your own choice.

Q402. Engels suggests that throughout history the state has been "for the ruling class." Identify the three historical periods he talks about and characterize how this plays out in each.

Q472. This is one of a series of problems (469, 470, 471, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands.

One option on the table for the community of Ourville is to build a park on the west side of town. Should we spend $100 to build a new park? Studies have determined that the park will provide $132 of benefits to the community's residents. What do you recommend and why?

Q229. Bob builds tool sheds. He uses 10 sheets of dry wall and 15 studs for a small shed and 15 sheets of dry wall and 45 studs for a large shed. He has available 60 sheets of dry wall and 135 studs. If Bob makes $390 profit on a small shed and $520 on a large shed, how many of each type of building should Bob build to maximize his profit? (From solution here)

Q122. The most basic opportunity cost incurred when undertaking a project is the simple value of investing the money instead of spending it. A first step toward figuring out what that cost is is understanding compound interest. Show what happens to $1000 if the annual interest rate is 5%.

Q189. Our campaign wants to hold a giant rally the Sunday before the election. Many voters are fired up, many are tired. Some think we can win, others not so sure. Suppose the ready-to-jump-on-the-bandwagon threshold distribution is shown below. The numbers here mean how many people are willing to come to the rally given different levels of expected participation.

Analyze this information and describe the direction our organizing strategy should go. What should we expect? How much intervention could produce how much of a desired result. Assume that our current research suggests about 40 people are currently planning on going to next week's event.

Threshold Count
0 12
10 3
20 4
30 5
40 6
50 9
60 13
70 17
80 19
90 6
100 0

Q92. What is wrong with the decision tree here? I need to decide whether to work at home or go down to Stanford today. At home, because of distractions, I work at about 75% efficiency. If I go to my research office at Stanford I work at 100% efficiency. If I work at home I will get 8 hours to work. If I decide to drive down to Stanford, I will get 8 hours minus driving time to work. The normal drive is ^0 minutes each way. But about 20% of the time it is extra light and the round trip takes just 90 minutes. About 30% of the time, though, traffic is awful and round trip is 180 minutes. I made a decision tree to figure out where I should work if I am trying to maximize my output, but I did something wrong. Fix the tree and tell me what I should do.


Q356. Demonstrate your understanding of the George Herbert Mead excerpt and its connection to ideas about how the nature of the social individual is a "source" of social order by explaining this diagram. Use examples to illustrate your ideas.


Q48. Convert the information below - data on four organizations, listing the members of their boards of directors - into a network data format and then use a network visualization program to show the 2 mode network laid out nicely with nodes labeled.

Acme Association Boothwyn Foundation The Cannalo Organization Dynamic Educational Consulting
Allen Allen Barb Chris
Barb Ethan Chris Dante
Chris Fran Ethan Ethan
Dante Gent Fran Kelly
Harri Ishtar Lori
Jack Miguel

Q362. The theorists whose work was included in the section on individuals and social order each suggest mechanisms for how shared meaning happens through actual social interaction. Describe how each thinker is saying that the picture below is NOT how it happens - that is, we don't just magically have a bunch of social/cultural content in our heads; it gets there through a process, there's a mechanism that we can describe.

If it's later in the course, relate this to life in groups - how is this social content connected to ideas on internalization and socialization of group members?


Q446. Walk us through Tocqueville's contrast of aristocratic society where citizens are bound to, say, their local noble, and democratic society where citizens are independent. He wants to say that the latter can't get anything done unless they know how to organize and associate.

Q340. Explain sociological wholism (vs. methodological reductionism) and sociological realism (vs. nominalism)

Q319. What does the indicatrix tell us about the Mollweide projection? Specifically, what do the red and black "12 o'clock" and "3 o'clock" lines mean?

Q244. This question extends problem 243. You've learned the following things during your professional training. Represent this information as a three level stepwise refinement.

  1. Preparing to write a grant consists of identifying a need and putting together a logic model that shows what new inputs are needed to generate desired outcomes
  2. Finding a funder requires identifying a list of funders, looking up the kinds of projects they are funding, and finding matches for your project
  3. Writing a grant involves (1) preparing to write the grant; (2) finding template appropriate to particular funders; (3) producing drafts and reviewing with staff
  4. Draft and review protocols vary, but one you like is to produce a draft, post it on Google docs for the team to comment on, send a prodding email to team members every few days until it looks like there are no more comments on that draft, make revisions and repeat this process until the deadline is near.

Q286. When using Leaflet to create a webmap, we use code like this:

var cloudmade = L.tileLayer('http://{s}.tile.cloudmade.com/{key}/{styleId}/256/{z}/{x}/{y}.png', {
            attribution: 'Map data © 2011 OpenStreetMap contributors, Imagery © 2011 CloudMade',
            key: 'BC9A493B41014CAABB98F0471D759707',
            styleId: 22677

to create the "attribution" on the map. What does this refer to? Why do we need to do it?

Q415. Explain what we mean by "norm of reciprocity" and how it is relevant to the course.

Q288. How would you estimate the number of people who live within 500 meters of MacArthur Blvd in Oakland?

Q271. With reference to cartography, explain what we mean by scale, resolution, simplification/abstraction, representation, point, line, area, volume

13. Even the worst "deviant" is mostly a conformer. Explain what this means and what it’s relevance is for
a theory of social control.