Q9. Blank


Q188. "Women's issues" have been talked about a lot in the 2012 presidential campaigns. One issue has been the hiring of women in leadership positions in society. Draw a causal loop diagram to represent the following relationships.

The more "gender bias" the fewer qualified women there will be.
More qualified women means more women in positions of power.
The more women in power, the less "gender bias" in society.

Assuming we start with social bias and not many women in positions of power, how is this system likely to behave?

Now let's modify things a bit. Let's suppose we solve the "supply" problem and break the link between bias and the number of qualified women and that the latter grows significantly. We change our model slightly:

Societal bias produces social blindness to existence of qualified women.
This social blindness means fewer women will be in the pool that is considered for positions of power.
The fewer women in the pool, the fewer end up in positions of power.
And, as before, the more (fewer) women in power, the less (more) "gender bias" in society.

Draw this causal model.

Now let's add another causal relation: the fewer women in positions of power, the more NGOs emerge to promote women's participation in government, etc. The NGOs hit on a strategy called that the men in power call "binders of women" — whereby they do the legwork needed to show the men the qualified women that their bias made them blind to.

Add the NGOs and the binders to our causal model. Identify a balancing loop that might portend the achievement of improved gender diversity in positions of power.


Q150. Consider this passage and draft explication1. Work through it and suggest how you might improve it.

Text Explication
In "The Production of Consciousness," Marx (1845-1846) writes,“Men can be distinguished from the animals by consciousness, by religion, or by whatever one wants. They begin to distinguish themselves from the animals as soon as they begin to produce their means of life, a step which is determined by their physical organisation. In producing their means of life they indirectly produce their material life itself” (46). In other words, Marx is saying that the difference between a human being and an animal is that human beings have consciousness and work and contribute to production that allow them to produce their means of life; therefore, work is essential to humans’ interactions.

Q330. Equilibrium came up many times in this course. Briefly catalog several and describe the concept and its importance. Be sure you can address (1) whether it is a normative concept (2) stable vs. unstable (3) different examples.


Q184. A campaign director is flying blind. Two tossup states both have 20 electoral votes. All current information is that the chances of winning in each is 50:50.

Draw the event tree that describes the possible election outcomes.

Our campaign director has the opportunity to do one last ad buy of $1 million. Research and experience have shown that an ad buy in a right state where a significant portion of the electorate is still open minded could shift the odds of winning to 60/40. How do we know? We've done lots of audience research that shows how particular electorates respond to this ad's approach. But doing the ad buy in the wrong state (one where folks have really made up their minds) will have no effect on the outcome. What we don't know is which, if either, of these states is the best fit for this type of campaigning.

Draw this decision tree.

Now suppose there is a poll she could do to find out whether state A or state B is the more promising state for the new ad. There is a 50% chance the poll says state A and a 50% chance it says state B. If it says state A then you do the ad buy there and you are certain to increase your chances while things in B stay the same. And vice versa.

What is the value of the information the poll can provide, in electoral votes?


Q34. Write out the data for the undirected network below in node list, edge list and full matrix format.

q34-01.gif
q34-02.gif

Q43. Based on your reading of Erikson, Becker, et al., write a short essay addressing one of the following.

  1. A 50 year old social scientist says "when I was in college, there was no date rape." Explain what a sociologist would mean by this.
  2. Consider the comments below about the experience of a patient in a mental hospital.
  3. Is the medical clarification of heretofore "invisible" disabilities an unqualified good?

Q147. Identify and fix problems of diction in these examples.


Q145. Wordsmith:

There are different types of secrets, in this situation the secret is a dark secret which has to be kept from the audience forever. “These consist of facts about a team which it knows and conceals and which are incompatible with the image of self that the team attempts to maintain before its audience” (Goffman, 1959, p. 141).


Q447. What is Tocqueville's argument that associations help to stabilize democratic regimes?


Q319. What does the indicatrix tell us about the Mollweide projection? Specifically, what do the red and black "12 o'clock" and "3 o'clock" lines mean?

mollweide_w_indicatrix.png

Q217. Sociologists and anthropologists gripe endlessly about rational actor models, failing, over and over again, to understand that they are MODELS, not descriptions. Explicate and comment on this passage to show that you understand what the value of a model like prisoner's dilemma is for social theory.

The Cooperation Theory that is presented…is based upon an investigation of individuals who pursue their own self-interest without the aid of a central authority to force them to cooperate with each other. The reason for assuming self-interest is that it allows an examination of the difficult case in which cooperation is not completely based upon a concern for others or upon the welfare of the group as a whole. It must, however, be stressed that this assumption is actually much less restrictive than it appears. … So the assumption of self interest is really just an assumption that concern for others does not completely solve the problem of when to cooperate with them and when not to (Axelrod 1984: 177.2).


Q301. Explain what we mean by "taxi-cab distance."


Q266. What is interpolation and how do heat maps work?


Q434. On p241 Durkheim talks about the anomy (disruption) caused by economic disaster (a person losing everything, say, or sudden drop in a set of people's economic circumstances as when a local industry closes and everyone loses jobs) OR when sudden wealth comes (again, to an individual or to a community or group). Explain what Durkheim sees happening and how it's the same process in both situations.


Q290. What kind of map is this and what is it used for?
sfbaychart.png

Q348. At 63.2 (in Hechter and Horne reader) Mead says there are two stages in the development of the social self. First the organization of particular attitudes of particular others toward oneself. Second is characterized by "an organization of the social attitudes of the generalized other or the social group…." Although we usually interpret this in terms of the development of a social self in children, we can use it to describe our joining of any new group or social environment. Explain what this means using an example of an individual's socialization into some concrete scene of your own conjuring.


Q432. At 240.5 Durkheim talks about social classification (by which he means the way people are sorted into different roles/occupations/classes in society) and about what the basis of these are (and how we accept them or take them for granted - note that this is what Goffman was talking about too in "The Arrangement Between the Sexes.") Why should (or how can) people be content with their lot in life when they are aware that the lots people have are vastly unequal?


Q340. Explain sociological wholism (vs. methodological reductionism) and sociological realism (vs. nominalism)


Q214. Explicate and comment:

Akerlof generalized this model to a number of markets in which there is unequal information on the two sides - insurance companies know less than you do, usually, about whether you are accident prone, or susceptible to hereditary diseases, or are contemplating suicide. Life insurance rates for sixty-five-year-olds must allow for a large fraction who are not long for this world. And those who know they are healthy and have a family history of longevity and are exposed to few risks have to pay the same premium as the poorer risks; life insurance being unattractive [to them] at that price, few of them buys it. The average life expectancy of the customers goes down, the rates go up further, and the bargain now looks poor even to those of normal life expectancy. And so forth.

…. It is akin to, and sometimes coincides with, those situations in which the below average, or the above average, withdraw or won't join, causing some potential market or institution to unravel. Because people vary and because averages matter, there may be no sustainable critical mass; and the unraveling behavior, or initial failure to get the activity going at all, has much the appearance of a critical mass that is almost but not quite achieved (Schelling 1978: 159.5-7).


22. What does Donald Black mean by “corporate space”? In what sense is "corporateness" a variable? Give an example of a conflict in which one party has “high” corporateness and the other has “low” corporateness.


Q119. Mills public policy program recruits R new students each fall. In the spring 0.0G (i.e., G%) students graduate. At the end of a typical year 0.0L (i.e., L%) of active students leave for personal or other reasons. Express the current student population, P, in terms of these figures.


Q314. Show how to set snapping options to make vertex matching while drawing polygons by hand easier.


Q378. "From an economic point of view, coercion is simply too expensive to be the sole basis of social order" (Hechter and Horne, 85). Explain what this is getting at. How does it lead us to Weber's concept of legitimate domination.


Q327. Our agency provides three types of client service: A, B, and C. And we have 3 kinds of staff: X, Y, and Z.

Each type A service requires 3 hours of an X staff member's time and 1 hour of a Y. Type B requires 2 X, 1 Y, and 3 Z hours. And type C requires 1 X, 3 Y, and 2 Z.

Currently we have 2 X, 1 Y and 1 Z on staff. We pay X's $25 per hour, Ys get $30 and Zs get $40. Assume everyone works a 35 hour week. At 35 hours per week our labor costs are 4200.

Revenue from type A service is $100, B is $200, and C is $300.

Regulations require that we serve at least 5 of each client type each week and that we serve at total of at least 21 clients each week.

What client mix will allow us to maximize revenue?

Excel Worksheet here.


Q257. (a) Explain the equations for common pool resource problems as discussed in Lecture 17.4: "Collective Action and Common Pool Resource Problems":

$x_j$ : amount consumed by person j

$X$ : total consumed

Amount available next period: $C_{T+1} = (C_T - X)^2$

(b) Propose values of these variables that would result in a steady state equilibrium value of the resource.


Q400. Willis' Learning to Labour is often cited as an example of the social science concept of the "reproduction of social class." Explain what that phrase means to you after reading the excerpt from Willis' book.


Q121. Consider a "leaky" reservoir. Current volume 1,200 million gallons. Inflow 200 million gallons per month. Consumption 150 million gallons per month. Leakage 5% of current volume per month.

  1. Draw a stock and flow diagram of the situation.
  2. Draw a causal loop diagram showing the relationship between reservoir volume and the net in/out flow.
  3. Identify amount(s) and rate(s).
  4. Write the difference equation in the form $P_{n+1} = a \times P_n + b$.
  5. Calculate the expected equilibrium.
  6. Set up Excel model.
  7. Chart reservoir volume vs. time.

Q52. If necessary, review the Wikipedia page "matrix multiplication." Then practice with the following

A =

a b
c d
e f

B =

e f g
h i j

C =

1 1 1 0
0 1 0 1

D =

1 1
1 1
1 0
1 0

What is (1) AxB (2) CxD (3) AxC (4) DxB (5) BxC


Q322. Say what's wrong with these flow charts and redraw them correctly.

flowchart-bad-01a.png flowchart-bad-02a.png flowchart-bad-03a.png

Q307. Find a color scheme using ColorBrewer and implement it on a polygon layer in QGIS.


Q339. Ludwik Fleck wrote: "what actually thinks within a person is not the individual himself but his social community" (Hechter & Horne 59.5). Explain what Fleck's theory of thought collectives is all about by explaining what this means.


Q258. Insofar as particulars matter, what's the difference between cows, lobsters, and whether you live up stream or downstream?


0005.The community is also trying to create a neighborhood resident association. Ten members are recruited each month through posters put up in the community. In addition, each member typically recruits 1 new member every five months (that is, about 0.2 new members per member per month). And finally, attrition seems to run at about 40% per month.

  • What are the "rates"? What are the "amounts"?
  • Write the difference equation in general form (Pn+1=aPn + b)
  • Label the diagram below as fully as you can.
pn%2B1vspn.gif
  • What is the equilibrium value? Is it a stable or unstable equilibrium? How can you tell?
  • Label this chart as fully as possible and then explain what it shows.
pnvst.gif

Q253. Consider this network in which green agents are cooperators and violet are defectors and the cost of cooperating is 2 while the benefit of being cooperated with is 5. Where is the equilibrium is people's behavior changes based on their network experiences?

network-reciprocity-02.png

Q349. Language is the paramount example of a SOCIAL phenomenon - the "code system" of language exists in our collective, shared consciousness and anyone who wishes to communicate has to participate in this. Use language and the acquisition and use of language to explain Mead's idea of taking the role of the other, the generalized other, etc.


Q335. Consider Marx on the production of consciousness. How important does the kind of work seem to be as over against the kinds interaction among people who do the same kind of work for Marx? Compare, perhaps, Uber drivers and fast food workers. Would Marx expect less or a different kind of shared consciousness among the one or the other?


Q66. The chart below could easily figure in an argument that the death penalty does not deter murder. It shows that since 1990 the murder rate per 100,000 population has been higher in states WITH the death penalty than in those without it.

What is an obvious "correlation is not causation" counter-argument?

murder-rate-vs-death-penalt.gif

Q216. Explicate and comment:

But man has almost constant occasion for the help of his brethern, and it is in vain for him to expect it from their benevolence only. He will be more likley to prevail if he can interest their self-love in his favor, and show them that it is for their own advantage to do for him what he requires of them. Whoever offers to another a bargain of any kind, proposes to do this. Give me that which I want, and you shall have this which you want, is the meaning of every such offer; and it is in this manner that we obtain from one another the far greater part of those offices which we stand in need of. It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest. We address ourselves, not to their humanity but to their self-love, and never talk to them of our own necessities but of their advantages (Smith 1776: 172.5).


Q381. Convert penultimate paragraph of Hechter & Horne's introduction into a table that summarizes the theories in this section. Start with their suggestion that each theory has some group dominating others and each has different process leading to this and different consequences deriving from it.

"Each of the readings in this section argues…. from generation to generation."


Q455. Think about the articles by Fehr & Gintis and Centola et al. Show what you take away from these articles by talking about how norms can support cooperation and social order and how they can support an order that might be high on coordination but low on the benefits of cooperation.


Q95. You never know what the weather is going to be around here. Somedays you need a sweater and some days you need sunglasses. The smart person, they say, always brings both. But suppose there is a definite hassle involved in bringing either (e.g., you ride a bike and space is tight). Sketch a decision tree that takes into account a cost to bringing either and a cost to not having either when you need them and the possibility that on a given day you might need one, the other, or both. Use plausible numbers of your own choice.


Q173. Consider this data on the thresholds in a population. Draw a frequency histogram and cumulative frequency diagram. If news reports suggest participation will be at 20 people, how many people's threshold is met or exceeded? How about if the number is 70?

p0173-table-a.gif

Q435. Discuss: Durkheim talks about how society gets us to "accept our lot"; Marx and Engels talk about false consciousness and ideology (we buy into our oppression) and religion as "opiate of the masses"; Weber gave us the notion of legitimate authority. Points of similarity and difference?


Q189. Our campaign wants to hold a giant rally the Sunday before the election. Many voters are fired up, many are tired. Some think we can win, others not so sure. Suppose the ready-to-jump-on-the-bandwagon threshold distribution is shown below. The numbers here mean how many people are willing to come to the rally given different levels of expected participation.

Analyze this information and describe the direction our organizing strategy should go. What should we expect? How much intervention could produce how much of a desired result. Assume that our current research suggests about 40 people are currently planning on going to next week's event.

Threshold Count
0 12
10 3
20 4
30 5
40 6
50 9
60 13
70 17
80 19
90 6
100 0

Q130. In a "bathtub problem," why don't we include the water company or the sewer system to be stocks?


Q168. Suppose we have a diffusion process in which susceptibles who are in contact with an infected in a given time period have a 50% chance of becoming infected in the next time period. Now play the “game” again except this time flip a coin each time (or use a random number chart for probabilities other than 50:50) to see whether neighbors become infected or not. Note: You might not want to play all the way out to time period 5! On the grids below color in squares to indicate what happens over the first six time periods beginning with one infected. Then fill in the table and chart the data.

p0167-grid.gif
p0167-table.gif
p0167-chart.gif

Q220. What is the objective function in each of the following situations?

  1. What is the largest volume box I can make by folding a piece of cardboard that is A inches by B inches?
  2. Pancakes cost $1 each, eggs are 1.50, and blintzes are 2. Pancakes have 200 calories, eggs 125 and blintzes 450. What combination gives me the most calories for 5 dollars?
  3. What's the cheapest 1000 calorie daily diet?
  4. I have information on the level of AOD demand reduction we can expect from public awareness campaigns, DARE visits to public schools, increased treatment slots, and increases in after care. I know the cost of each type program and I have a limited budget. What mix of programs should I institute to have the biggest effect on demand?

Q437. On p 243 we read "this liberation of desires has been made worse by the very development of industry and the almost infinite extension of the market." Consult the text (including the text before this passage) and say something about what Durkheim's take on globalization of markets and products might be.


Q281. Explain these acronyms: AAG, ABAG, BART


Q192. A student wants to maximize her GPA. Three of her courses are required 3 credit courses and she estimates she will get a B in each. She has a choice between an easier 3 credit course that she can definitely get an A in and a slightly harder 4 credit course in which she expects a B+. What will she do?


Q191. A voter has an objective function which is to minimize the difference between her positions on two issues and those of the candidates. Here positions can be described as a 3 on issue A and an 8 on issue B. Candidate 1 has positions -2 and 9 while candidate 2 has positions 4 and 4. For whom will the voter cast her ballot?


Q310. Show you know your way around the Georeferencer plugin in QGIS.


Q213. Explicate and comment:

What the general argument against 'interference' thus amounts to is that, although we can endeavor to improve a spontaneous order by revising the general rules on which it rests, and can supplement its results by the efforts of various organizations, we cannot improve the results by specific commands that deprive its members of the possibility of using their knowledge for their purposes (Hayek 1976:153.1).


19. Explain what Durkheim meant when he wrote that crime is a normal rather than a pathological condition of a society using, as an example, a political group which very carefully screens members to be sure that they agree with all the attitudes that the group stands for so that the group is quite homogeneous. Would Durkheim expect deviance to arise in this group? How so? What kind?


Q123. Suppose I am sitting on $20,000 and I am trying to figure out whether or not to use it to buy a car. I have a very limited life and have determined that if I buy the car I will have to pay $800 insurance and about 10 cents per mile to operate it and I drive 2500 miles per year. If I own a car I'll drive rather than take the bus on approximately 300 local commutes (saving $1000 and 150 hours net). My time is worth $50 per hour. An alternative would be to put the $20,000 into an investment vehicle (so to speak) that would pay me 7.5% annually.


Q260. Explain how "group selection" can give rise to cooperative behavior in human society.


Q85. A regimen consists of three mandatory sessions, followed by an optional weekend retreat and then, monthly sessions until standard test indicates absence of symptoms.


Q154. Suppose a given housing market has a 10% turnover rate each year. How many houses will typically be in the first, second, third, etc. year of their mortgage at any given time? Assume 10 year mortgages to keep things simple. Draw the diagram that would be the first step in solving this problem.


Q388. Explain what Weber means by legal authority.


Q303. Show, in QGIS, how to select features individually and by radius, rectangle, etc.


Q87. Sketch a flow chart to represent the following scenario. The Alameda County Waste Management Authority (ACWMA) has decided to spend some money on a public relations campaign to increase the level of composting ("green bin") recylcing. Data on hand says that current levels are 4 kg per household of four per week. The plan is to spend $10,000 on advertising each month until the level has gone over 6 kg per week for four weeks in a row.
Prefatory concern – what does 4 kg / household of 4 / week mean? The amount of compost likely depends on the number of people in a household. We don't want to get the numbers wrong by failing to take this into account. So, in our data collection, we double the number for households of 2, halve it for households of 8, etc. Why not just express it as "kg/person/week"? That would work fine mathematically. Perhaps the PR folks had wanted to focus on households (and families) so as to induce a greater sense of collective responsibility.


Q180. Which of the cumulative frequency distributions below corresponds to this frequency distribution

histogram05.gif
A. cumfreq01.gif B. cumfreq02.gif C. cumfreq03.gif
D. cumfreq04.gif E. cumfreq05.gif

Q235. Schelling’s piece, “Micromotives, Macrobehaviors,” is included because it demonstrates some specific conditions under which market interactions may lead to coordination but not cooperation. What are his two examples and what are the conditions that can affect whether market interactions lead to cooperation? Explain the role they play, perhaps using our class chairs and offices simulation as a point of reference, in limiting the optimism of Smith and Hayek for markets as a source of social order.


Q131. Draw a causal loop diagram that illustrates the process of feeling hungry, eating, becoming satisfied, stopping, getting hungry again.


Q112. Sketch a causal loop diagram representing this logic:
Being sad…

  1. …makes you frown…
  2. …which makes people avoid you…
  3. …which makes you lonely…
  4. …which makes you sad…

Q244. This question extends problem 243. You've learned the following things during your professional training. Represent this information as a three level stepwise refinement.

  1. Preparing to write a grant consists of identifying a need and putting together a logic model that shows what new inputs are needed to generate desired outcomes
  2. Finding a funder requires identifying a list of funders, looking up the kinds of projects they are funding, and finding matches for your project
  3. Writing a grant involves (1) preparing to write the grant; (2) finding template appropriate to particular funders; (3) producing drafts and reviewing with staff
  4. Draft and review protocols vary, but one you like is to produce a draft, post it on Google docs for the team to comment on, send a prodding email to team members every few days until it looks like there are no more comments on that draft, make revisions and repeat this process until the deadline is near.

Q205. Suppose the agents in a population have four behaviors - W, X, Y, Z - and that each behavior is either present or absent. When two agents meet they may have all the same behaviors, none of the same behaviors, or 1 or 2 behaviors in common. Suppose the probability of interaction is proportional to their similarity. IF they do interact, they flip a coin and who ever wins gets imitated by the other agent.

Use the two random number tables below (the left table for doing a Monte Carlo simulation of whether interaction occurs and the left table to determine which agent is the leader and which is the follower) to work out the next state n the grid below, determine the probability of interaction between each pair of neighbors (assume no diagonal interaction for now)

69 72 43 97 87 0 0 0 1 1
37 86 35 23 41 1 1 0 0 1
88 36 94 60 60 1 1 1 0 0
84 26 3 87 12 0 0 1 1 0
8 10 56 52 29 1 1 1 0 0
26 5 30 15 58 0 1 1 1 1
95 3 95 18 69 0 0 1 0 0
71 42 55 64 21 0 0 1 1 0
68 75 90 19 64 0 0 1 1 0
75 13 77 1 89 0 0 0 0 0
A
1110
B
1010
C
0010
D
1001
E
0000
F
1111
G
1001
H
1011
I
1000
J
1000
K
1110
L
0000
M
0010
N
1100
O
0100
P
0111

Q439. Freud in "Civilization and Its Discontents" gives us a theory of how conscience arises and functions. In the selection on anomic suicide Durkheim gives an account of conscience as controlling our otherwise potentially infinite (and unsatisfiable) desires. Compare and contrast.


Q120. My bathtub fills at 10 gallons per minute. It has a leak, though, whereby it loses 10% of it's volume per minute. It's a neat rectangular tub in which each 10 gallons is 2 inches of depth. How does it behave over time?


Q411. What is Axelerod's fundamental question in "The Evolution of Cooperation"? It has four parts.


Q479. Some old cars are being driven by people who take the attitude "if it ain't broke, don't fix it" and "sure, it might not be efficient or clean, but I can't afford to buy a new car." These cars use too much fuel and they pollute the air causing health problems in the population. Assume new cars are zero emission and so create zero health care costs. Each old car, on average, contributes to pollution and health care costs to the tune of $300 per year. We want to run a program to get 100 "junkers" off the road each year for the next three years by offering a $2000 rebate to people who swap a junker for a brand new zero emission vehicle. Working with a ten year time horizon and an initial discount rate of 3.5%, compute the NPV of the project. Then adjust the the subsidy to determine how large a subsidy we can give and still have the project worth doing. Then compute the IRR of the project at both the original amount and this new amount.


Q224. You are working for an agricultural cooperative which is helping local farmers figure out how to optimize the mixture of crops they plant. A typical farmer has 10 acres to plant in wheat and rye. She has to plant at least 7 acres. However, she has only the equivalent of $1200 to spend and each acre of wheat costs $200 to plant and each acre of rye costs $100 to plant. Moreover, the farmer has to get the planting done in 12 hours and it takes an hour to plant an acre of wheat and 2 hours to plant an acre of rye. If the expected profit is $500 per acre of wheat and $300 per acre of rye how many acres of each should be planted to maximize profits? (From Steve Wilson)


Q215. Explicate and comment:

The division of labour, from which so many advantages are derived, is not originally the effect of any human wisdom, which foresees and intends that general opulence to which it gives occasion. It is the necessary, though very slow and gradual consequence of a certain propensity in human nature which has in view no such extensive utility; the propensity to truck, barter, and exchange one thing for another (Smith 1776: 171.8).


Q80. If A: until B do C and then, do D if E, otherwise do F while G. Otherwise if H, then if I do J else do K. Do L.


Q277. Explain these acronyms: CSV, UTM, JPEG


Q387. Explain the following words/terms as used in Weber's excerpt on types of legitimate domination:

wertrationale (103.6)
material interests (103.6)
charismatic (104.4)
abstract rules (105.2)
impersonal order (105.3)
rationally delimited jurisdiction (105.5)
[absence of] "appropriation of his official position by the incumbent" (106.4)
office (106.7)
plebiscite (106.9)
administrative staff (107.2)
monocracy (107.4)
"principle of appointment" (108.5)
"red tape" (109.7)
dilettantism (109.8)
levelling (111.4)
sine ira et studio (111.5) - See Wikipedia
formalism (111.8)
utilitarian expediency (112.7)
patrimonial (113.4) - See Wikipedia
prebendal (114.6)
formal system of rules (116.7)
routinization of charisma (118.7)


Q475. This is one of a series of problems (469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 476, 477, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands.

Activists in Ourville force the city not to think of this as an either/or proposition. Experts are consulted and the following cost benefit information is obtained. Council allocates $200 for the parks project. How do you recommend they proceed and why? What kind of problem is this? How big should each park be?

q0475-cba-01.jpg

Q393. What does Weber mean by "social levelling"? (111)


Q116. The Eastville School Committee is agrees to an annual $200 per year salary increase for each Eastville teacher. Express this as a difference equation.


Q54. Use the data you generated in Q53 to produce simple visualizations of these networks in NodeXL and import these into a Word document to report your results.


Q287. Download this zip file, open the QGIS workspace inside, produce a map that looks like this:
output.png
and post it to a wiki page.

Q12. Erikson writes “…the very expression ‘he is a thief’ or ‘he is an addict’ seems to provide at once a description of his position in society and a profile of his character.” How is this relevant for understanding one of the main points of the Rosenhan article?


Q370. A storyboard is a technique for graphically organizing the telling of a story. Think about how you would explain Cohen and Vandello's work on violence and cultures of honor as an illustration of theories of how the human individual is a vehicle for the generation of social order. Imagine how you would represent the theory visually and how you would explain it textually.

storyboard.png

Q96. A college enrolls two types of students. Full-pay students pay $40K tuition and half-pay students pay $20K. At present the school spends $1 million per year to recruit 200 students about 75% of whom are half-pay and 25% full-pay. A consultant submits a proposal to shift resources around and use GIS to target recruitment at zip codes that are more likely to yield full-pay students. She says there is a 75% chance that the results will be a slightly smaller class (190) but one with 40% full-pay and 60% half-pay. Unfortunately there is also a risk things won't turn out so well. There's a 25% chance that enrollment will drop to 170 and only 30% will be full pay. Use a decision tree to advise the college as to its best course of action.


Q382. "A central idea in the readings in this section is that government matters" (87). Extend this idea to say that "organizations matter" in an argument about why some hierarchy is needed if we are to cooperate in groups of more than a few to get things done.


Q357. Demonstrate your understanding of the Durkheim excerpt and its connection to ideas about how the nature of the social individual is a "source" of social order by explaining this diagram. Use examples to illustrate your ideas.

sharedmeaningToOrderDurkheim.png

Q94. Assuming you are self-interested, what makes more sense: buy a $1.00 lottery ticket with a 1 in five million chance of winning a million dollars, buying a twenty dollar raffle ticket for a local fundraiser with a 1 in 2500 chance of winning a $500 jackpot, or playing a $1 stake game of rock-scissors-paper with the person next to you.


Q42. Data Collection Problem

  • Seeing two mode networks (when do we encounter these in the reading?)
  • Grab some data from an online source.
  • Use NodeXL to grab some automatically.
  • Class exercise on CSS.

Q147. Edit these sentences.

Yet, what is unique about the flight attendant’s setting is that it actually follows their performance.

When an individual inhabits the social role of airline attendant, their ability to successfully convey to their audience the validity of their performance also relies the use of a personal front (i.e. the second component of Goffman’s understanding of front).

Additionally, because some flight attendant-to-passenger interactions are not necessarily specific to this relationship (i.e. “hello’s” and “good-byes”), it is necessary for the flight attendant to enhance their communication as to confirm and reaffirm the role (Goffman 30).


Q92. What is wrong with the decision tree here? I need to decide whether to work at home or go down to Stanford today. At home, because of distractions, I work at about 75% efficiency. If I go to my research office at Stanford I work at 100% efficiency. If I work at home I will get 8 hours to work. If I decide to drive down to Stanford, I will get 8 hours minus driving time to work. The normal drive is ^0 minutes each way. But about 20% of the time it is extra light and the round trip takes just 90 minutes. About 30% of the time, though, traffic is awful and round trip is 180 minutes. I made a decision tree to figure out where I should work if I am trying to maximize my output, but I did something wrong. Fix the tree and tell me what I should do.

decision-tree-problems-01.gif

Q190. An eager campaign volunteer wants to think rationally about where to put her time. She does her research about phone-banking and canvassing and discovers the following.

A full shift (calling hundreds!) at phone banking has a 10% chance of producing 20 votes and a 60% chance of producing 2 votes, 10% chance of producing no votes and a 20% chance of losing 2 votes. Canvassing, by comparison, has a 20% chance of producing 8 votes, 30% chance of producing 4 votes, and a 50% chance of producing no votes. Other things being equal, which would be a better use of her time?


Q228. A school is preparing a trip for 400 students. The company who is providing the transportation has 10 buses of 50 seats each and 8 buses of 40 seats, but only has 9 drivers available. The rental cost for a large bus is $800 and $600 for the small bus. Calculate how many buses of each type should be used for the trip for the least possible cost. (From VITutor)


Q108. You are a small non-profit. Your sole funder says that each year it will double what you have as your balance at the end of the year. Each year you project spending 20,000 for programs. Ignore interest. Write difference equations describing your balance (B).

What special situations can you imagine we might get into? What, for example, happens if B0=$32,000? What happens if it is 50,000? 40,000?


Q44. Media analysis of SOPA wars.


Q177. Which of the cumulative frequency distributions below corresponds to this frequency distribution

histogram02.gif
A. cumfreq01.gif B. cumfreq02.gif C. cumfreq03.gif
D. cumfreq04.gif E. cumfreq05.gif

Q397. Describe the "resistance culture" of the lads at school.


Q355. Explain what Marx means by "It is not consciousness that determines life, but life that determines consciousness" (47.7).


Q207. Convert the following logic into a set of step-by-step instructions in a manner that uses stepwise refinement.

To execute coordination we proceed as follows. Each agent will consider in turn its north, east, south, and west neighbors. First the agent determines whether interaction will take place at all based on similarity. Then, if they do interact, they flip a coin to decide who is the leader and who is the follower. Then the follower copies the traits of the leader. And then onto the next neighbor if there is one.

We can incorporate the following design decisions into our model: (1) neighbors who have already interacted in a given round do not do so again; (2) an agent can change multiple times during a given round; (3) all interactions are with the agent's current state.


13. Even the worst "deviant" is mostly a conformer. Explain what this means and what it’s relevance is for
a theory of social control.


14. Fill in the focus column of the table below and try to find an example of each in your file. Write a sentence or two explaining how the example illustrates the focus of this style of social control.

Style Focus Example
Penal
Compensatory
Conciliatory
Therapeutic
Reform
Prevention

Q3 What is the expected value of a two dice toss if the payoff is whatever comes up on the dice, in dollars? Sketch this as a decision tree with just chance nodes.


Q200. One of the most important concepts coming out of market, rational choice, and game theory models is "equilibrium." What do we mean by an equilibrium in game theory? Give an example and explain what we would mean if we said "get caught in a bad equilibrium."


Q282. Explain these acronyms: USGS, NOAA, NASA


Q84. If the weather is nice, plant a garden. Otherwise paint the office. For the garden, make a decision between flowers and vegetables. If you go for vegetables, buy compost, seeds, and stakes; till the soil, and hook up the irrigation. If it's flowers this year, go to the garden store and if they have 4 inch plants buy enough for the plot and plant them. If they don't then get flats of smaller plants and bring them home and let them get acclimated for a week and then plant them next week. To till the soil, if the ox is healthy, do it with the animal plow, otherwise get out the rototiller.


Q110. Each year the feral cat population grows by 3%. Let Cn be the number of cats n years from now. Assume there are presently 350. Suppose that each year we catch and euthanize or place in homes 20 cats. Write the equations for this situation.


Q398. According to Willis, what is the "main theme of shopfloor culture"? Explain and give examples.


Q209. Explicate and comment.

The distinction of this kind of order from one which has been made by somebody putting the elements of a set in their places or directing their movements is indispensable for any understanding of the processes of society as well as for all social policy. There are several terms available for describing each kind of order. The made order which we have already referred to as an exogenous order or an arrangement may again be described as a construction, an artificial order or, especially where we have to deal with a directed social order, as an organization. The grown order, on the other hand, which we have referred to as a self-generating or endogenous order, is in English mosts conveniently described as a spontaneous order (Hayek 1976: 142.1-3).


Q133. College is a more or less four year endeavor but students come and go on different schedules. Sketch a stock and flow model that shows freshwomen applicants coming from the cloud, admitted students from applicants, and freshwomen from the admittees. Then freshwomen become sophomores, mostly, but there is some attrition. And so on through the other years. Sketch a stock and flow diagram that follows students through four years and think up some variables that might affect the flows between the different years. For this problem, you should try wearing the hat of an academic administrator who is interested in the problems of "retention" and "degree completion."


Q292. Name these California counties.

CACountiesSouth.png

Q390. Explain what Weber means by charismatic authority.


Q218. Explicate and comment:

The result was another victory for TIT FOR TAT! The analysis of the data from these tournaments reveals four properties which tend to make a decision rule successful: avoidance of unnecessary conflict by cooperating as long as the other player does, provocability in the face of an uncalled for defection by the other, forgiveness after responding to a provocation, and clarity of behavior so that the other player can adapt to your pattern of action.

These results from the tournaments demonstrate that under suitable conditions, cooperation can indeed emerge in a world of egoists without central authority (Axelrod 1984: 184.5).


Q237. In "The Emperor's Dilemma," Centola, Willer, and Macy talk about “the popular enforcement of unpopular norms.” What does that mean? Why is it a puzzle? What is (are) the mechanism(s) that they think explains it?

Centola, Willer, and Macy “The Emperor's Dilemma"

“Naked emperors are easy to find but hard to explain. It is easy to explain why people comply with unpopular norms—they fear social sanctions. And it is easy to explain why people pressure others to behave the way they want them to behave. But why pressure others to do the opposite? Why would people publicly enforce a norm that they secretly wish would go away? (278)

“One hypothesis is that very few would actually enforce the norm, but no one knows this. If people estimate the willingness to enforce based on the willingness to comply, and they comply based on the false belief that others will enforce, they become trapped in pluralistic ignorance—an equilibrium in which few people would actually enforce the norm but no one realizes this. However, this equilibrium can be extremely fragile. As in the Andersen story [The Emperor’s New Clothes], all that is needed is a single child to laugh at the emperor and the spell will be broken (278).

“A more robust explanation is that most people really will enforce the norm, and for the same reason that they comply—social pressure from others in the group, for whom mere compliance is not enough. To the true believer, it is not sufficient that others go to the right art galleries, display the right body jewelry, purchase the right sports car, or support the right wing. They must do it for the right reason. Zealots believe that it is better not to comply at all than to do so simply to affirm social status (Kuran 1995a, p. 62). Such compliance lasts only so long as behavior can be monitored and social pressure is sufficient to induce acquiescence (Hechter 1987). Thus, true believers reserve special contempt for imposters. Those who comply for the wrong reason must worry about being exposed as counterfeit (278-9).

“The hypothesized anxiety is supported by research on the ‘illusion of transparency’ (Gilovich, Savitsky, and Medvec 1998). This refers to a tendency to overestimate the ability of others to monitor our internal states… (279).

“Applied to the emperor’s dilemma, the ‘illusion of transparency’ suggests that those who admire the emperor out of a desire for social approval fear that their posturing will be apparent to others. They then look for some way to confirm their sincerity. Enforcing the norm provides a low cost way to fake sincerity, to signal that one complies—not as an opportunist seeking approval—but as a true believer” (279).

centola-etal-mechanism-01.gif

Q32. In addition to replicating the material in the text, we'll have a "and now try it with this" exercise. Self test at end. Can I : enter vertices and display graph? select an edge ? move the graph plane around? switch graph type between directed and undirected? change data and update graph? move vertices around "manually"? set vertex colors and sizes? use the autofill tool? add vertex labels? add tool tips? save a layout? save a data file?


Q379. "Marx and Engels suggest that the disadvantaged are duped by the institutions and ideology of the ruling class" (Hechter and Horne, 85). Elaborate.


Q402. Engels suggests that throughout history the state has been "for the ruling class." Identify the three historical periods he talks about and characterize how this plays out in each.


Q423. The article "From Ants to People, An Instinct to Swarm" suggests that humans might not (yet) be like ants because we have not had enough time to adapt to living in groups (195.5). What does this mean? Demonstrate what you learned from this article (and from this section of the course) by talking about how humans are and are not like ants and what might be involved in an evolution toward being more like ants.


Q264. What is a datum?


Q75. Sketch a flowchart that represents this bit of logic: “If you can get a direct flight for under $1500 take it unless it leaves from SFO before 9 am. Otherwise, see if anything is available on frequent flier miles no matter what the routing. If you can’t find anything, use Expedia to find the cheapest flight out of OAK.”


Q352. Explain what Hedstrom ("Dissecting the Social") meant when he said "differences in some social states or events are considered explained if the decomposition eliminates them" (13.8)?


Q417. In the context of game theory/prisoner's dilemma, what does "words are cheap" mean?


Q328. Have a look at this recent release from Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). The data separates those without a job into unemployed but "in the labor force" and "marginally attached to the labor force" and a subset of these called "discouraged" - the former would like to work but have not looked in the last four weeks and so are not counted as unemployed. The latter are not actively looking for work having given up on the idea that its possible to find. These groups are not included in the denominator when the unemployment rate is calculated. The simple version of the unemployment rate is, then,

(1)
\begin{align} UR = \frac {Unemployed} {Employed + Unemployed} \end{align}

Some recent op-eds have counseled caution about optimism that the overall unemployment rate has been going down because it might reflect growth in the number of people no longer looking for work. We'll think about that with a Markov model. We'll simplify the states a worker can be in:

  • employed (E)
  • short term unemployed - 14 weeks or less (US)
  • long term unemployed - over 14 weeks (LS)
  • Marginally attached to the labor force - no longer looking for a job (MALF)

Let's construct a simplified Markov model of unemployment based on transition rates shown here:

markov_transition_table.png

If the unemployment rate is calculated as the ratio of those who are short term unemployed (US) plus those who are long term unemployed (UL) to the total labor force (E + US + UL), how would things evolve over the next twelve months if the starting numbers are these:

markov_starting_point.png

What will the unemployment rate be? Even if it is agreed that getting unemployment to near 6% is a policy goal, are there reasons the results might not be a cause for celebration?

Create a chart showing changes over the next 12 months. Suggestion: plot total employment (E) on secondary axis since it's such a large number. In the alternative, put it on a separate chart.

Excel worksheet here


Q317. Match the name with the projection.
South Polar Azimuthal | Mercator | Albers Equal Area Conic | Mollweide | Lambert Conformal Conic | North Polar Azimuthal
albersequalareaconic0.png mercator0.png Mollweide0.png
northpolarazimuthal0.png southpolarazimuthal0.png lambertconformal0.png

Q476. This is one of a series of problems (469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 477, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands.

The Ourville Alliance, a neighborhood group whose members include several MPPs, likes decision trees. And they think the benefits of the different park options are not certain. In fact, they think that Option A has a 75% chance of a net benefit of 60 and a 25% chance of being a bust and having a net benefit of only 20. By comparison, Option B has a 90% chance of having a net benefit of 50 and a 10% chance of a net benefit of only 10. Sketch in details, labels, etc. on this decision tree as necessary. What do you recommend and why?

q0476-cba-01.jpg

Q40. Structural equivalence problems


Q58. Consider these examples of claimsmaking…


Q272. Explain/illustrate what these geoprocessing operations do: clip, intersection, union, difference, buffer, convex hull, symmetric difference.


Q144. Wordsmith this passage

In the second chapter of his book Goffman elaborates on the concept of teams. He refers to “team performance” as “teams” and it is “to refer to any set of individuals who co-operate in staging a single routine” (Goffman, 1959, 79). In other words Goffman’s concept of a team is a group of people that are adhering and working towards the same goal.


Q72. Sketch a flowchart that represents this bit of logic: “if you are a woman then if you are over 40 you should have this test no matter what but if either parent had diabetes women should have the test no matter what. Men only need to take the test if they are overweight.”


Q31. Demonstrate basic familiarity with email, wikis, Twitter, Facebook, newsgroups, listserves.


Q101. If the farmer plants early and the spring is warm, she can get a 20% increase in her harvest. But if she plants early and there's a late frost she can lose 50% of her harvest. Historically, these late frosts happen one year in four (25% of the time). Use a decision tree to determine how much she would be willing to invest in a perfect forecast.


Q41. TEXT


Q426. Weber's definition, please:

traditional authority
rational legal authority
charismatic authority


Q102. Kids these days! Of those who get into trouble, it turns out, about 30% are "real trouble-makers" who need some help. The other 70% are normal adolescents who will age out of their trouble-making under normal care. A social worker friend introduces you to a test that you can give to kids who are referred to you to determine which category they are in. Research has suggested the test is 75% accurate. Use tree flipping to describe what to make of the test's results.


Q254. Just based on reasoning, explain the relation among relatedness, cost of cooperation, and benefit of cooperation in kin selection as a mechanism for achieving cooperation in the face of prisoner's dilemma scenarios.


Q245. Offer a critique of this flow chart diagram

flowchart-bad-01.png

Q389. Explain what Weber means by traditional authority.


Q306. Create custom labels based on two fields for a polygon layer.


Q368. A storyboard is a technique for graphically organizing the telling of a story. Think about how you would explain Durkheim's theory of collective representations (shared meaning) as a theory of how the human individual is a vehicle for the generation of social order. Imagine how you would represent the theory visually and how you would explain it textually.

storyboard.png

Q202. (a) Set up the issue of whether to use the metric system or the English system of weights and measures as a coordination game. (b) Identify any equilibria and whether they are efficient or not. (c) If we are in the English/English cell, describe both players' motivations to unilaterally switch to metric. (d) what if we were in the metric/English cell?


Q276. Go to OpenStreetMap.org and edit a building structure in the neighborhood around Mills.


Q117. The Westtown School committee is more generous. It agrees to a 5.5% cost-of-living increase per year, plus a one time only $200 adjustment for past sins of omission. Express this as a difference equation.


Q329. Create for yourself a one page cheat-sheet/course summary illustration that captures what you have learned/want to take away from the course. Be prepared to show it at oral exam and explain it to instructor as if he were a fellow student who has not taken this course. This can take any form at all within the constraints of being no more than one sheet of paper. Just for fun, here are some examples from other courses: Social Theory, GIS, Social Control. Focus, of course, on content, not artistic flair.


Q472. This is one of a series of problems (469, 470, 471, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands.

One option on the table for the community of Ourville is to build a park on the west side of town. Should we spend $100 to build a new park? Studies have determined that the park will provide $132 of benefits to the community's residents. What do you recommend and why?


Q185. Sketch a causal loop diagram for these two systems (be sure to label each link and the overall loop). Comment on the long term equilibrium of this system.

  • Being pro candidate X…
    1. …makes you give money…
    2. …makes the campaign send you emails…
    3. …makes you want to go to a rally…
    4. …makes pro candidate X…
  • Being pro candidate X…
    1. …makes you give money…
    2. …makes the campaign send you emails…
    3. …makes you get fed up with the campaign…
    4. …makes you a little sour on candidate X…
  • Not hearing much from the campaign…
    1. …makes you miss your candidate
    2. …makes you feel more pro candidate X

Q118. The Westtown School committee is more generous. It agrees to a 5.5% cost-of-living increase per year, plus a one time only $200 adjustment for past sins of omission. How much would it be worth to teachers if the one time adjustment were made before the first COLA rather than after.


Q156. A state corrections system has established a new drug treatment facility for first offenders. The center has a capacity of 1000.

Inmates may leave the facility in either of two ways. In any period, there is a 10 percent probability that an inmate will be judged rehabilitated, in which case s/he will be released at the beginning of the following period.. There is also a 5 percent chance that an inmate will escape during each period. Rehabilitated addicts have a 20 percent chance of relapsing in each period; escapees have a 10 percent chance of being recaptured each period. Both recidivists and recaptured escapees are returned to the facility and have priority over new offenders.

Questions

If it operates at full capacity, how many of the original inmates will be resident at the facility 10 periods later?
How many new offenders can be admitted during each of the next 2 periods?
What happens if we modify the model to allow for a small possibility of death or a change in the probability of relapse?


Q480. Convert the data recorded on the cards below into a cases by variables table.

ten-data-cards.jpg

Q466. A state agency is considering a childcare subsidy that would facilitate single parents attainment of college degrees. The benefit would cost $10k per recipient per year for four years. The expectation is that individuals with a college degree will earn more than individuals without a college degree. This means that they generate more revenue in the form of income tax. They are also less likely to require government assistance of various kinds — call this amount A. Assume current rules limit us to a ten year time horizon. Assume the average salary difference between non-college grads and college grads is D (but get the real info here) and that the marginal tax rate can be found here. Assume a 5% discount rate. For the purposes of this problem, we will ignore inflation.


Q450. Centola, et al. describe a process whereby people collectively "produce" something that is contrary to their individual beliefs/interests/preferences. Thomas Schelling, similarly, described a process whereby socially irrational results emerged from individually rational action. Identify points of similarity and difference, using it as an opportunity to show what you know about the two thinkers' ideas as well as your ability to compare markets and groups as generators of social order.


Q373. Explain what we mean by the phrase "necessary but not sufficient" AND how this applies to the idea that a common language and shared meaning are necessary for social order.


Q365. A storyboard is a technique for graphically organizing the telling of a story. Think about how you would explain Marx's theory of consciousness as a theory of how the human individual is a vehicle for the generation of social order. Imagine how you would represent the theory visually and how you would explain it textually.

storyboard.png

Q331. Studying for an exam could raise a student's grade by a whole letter grade. But it turns out to not be a sure thing. Suppose research has shown that six hours of studying has a 60% chance of increasing your grade by one letter grade, a 25% chance of having no effect, and a 15% chance of actually lowering it by one letter grade (perhaps due to increased anxiety and not enough sleep).
Calculate the expected value of the investment of 6 hours of study time in terms of "letter grades per hour."


Q445. What is the mechanism behind Tocqueville's endorsement of involvement in local politics as a way of building "the social" into citizens?


Q275. What do the four digit numbers on this map of the Laurel District most likely represent?
laurel-tracts.png

Q342. With which theorists do we associate this diagram? Explain what it means in the context of their work.

cohen-vandello-02-politeness-violence.png

Q234. Hayek is sometimes taken to be saying that the modern world throws up problems that are too complex to be handled by planning and policy making. Some things can be handled that way, but big and complex things cannot. What are the differences between the two types of order and the limitations and possibilities Hayek suggests each has and how does he get from there to social order?


Q405. Weber says (103.5) that "rule over a considerable number of persons requires a staff…." If you read carefully you will see that the types of "authority" he is talking about refer to the leader's capacity to control and direct the staff as much as to the leader's capacity to dominate "the led." Discuss Weber's types of legitimate domination as forms of maintaining organizational integrity.


Q298. Explain what's going on in this apparently distorted map

world-CA-stateplane3.png

Q206. Suppose the agents in a population have four behaviors - W, X, Y, Z - and that each behavior is either present or absent. Further suppose that there is some pressure toward consistency such that having a "don't do" behavior next to a "do do" behavior is uncomfortable and so agents have some internal urge to change their behavior to be more consistent.

Let's say that a behavior that is the only one of its type (a 0 among three 1s, for example) has a 50 percent chance of switching to make the set fully consistent. Each behavior that's one of an even split (e.g., a 0 in a 0011 agent) has a 10% chance of switching. We can put it this way: there is a 10% chance the first behavior changes, 10% the second, etc. and 60% chance no change happens.

Use the two random number table below to work out the next state n the grid below, determine the probability of interaction between each pair of neighbors (assume no diagonal interaction for now). For 50% chance use "random number above 50 = change, below 50 = stay." For the 10% chances, 0<10 is change first, 10<20 change 2, etc.

69 72 43 97 87
37 86 35 23 41
88 36 94 60 60
84 26 3 87 12
8 10 56 52 29
26 5 30 15 58
95 3 95 18 69
71 42 55 64 21
68 75 90 19 64
75 13 77 1 89
A
1110
B
1010
C
0010
D
1001
E
0000
F
1111
G
1001
H
1011

Q229. Bob builds tool sheds. He uses 10 sheets of dry wall and 15 studs for a small shed and 15 sheets of dry wall and 45 studs for a large shed. He has available 60 sheets of dry wall and 135 studs. If Bob makes $390 profit on a small shed and $520 on a large shed, how many of each type of building should Bob build to maximize his profit? (From solution here)


Q304. Open and explain attribute table. What are rows, what are columns? What do the controls along the bottom do? How do you sort rows? Change column width? Show only selected records? Select one or two rows and then reverse the selection.


Q418. Context and explication, please: "if the future is important, there is no one best strategy."

If the discount parameter, w, is sufficiently high, there is no best strategy independent of the strategy used by the other player.


Q309. Demonstrate that you know you way around the Print Composer.


Q469. This is one of a series of problems (470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands.

(a) As a part of its considerations about the park project, Ourville needs to think about the opportunity costs associated with each tract of land being considered for the park. What is an opportunity cost? You are nominated to explain (BRIEFLY) in terms the public will understand what we mean by opportunity cost:

(b) While discussing the value of the park options to residents the term "willingness to pay" comes up. Explain (BRIEFLY) to the public what this means.


Q279. Explain these acronyms: SQL, WMS, WGS84


Q238.

fehr-gintis-results-01.gif

Fehr and Gintis describe experiments using a "public goods game." In the regular game, players tended to free-ride more and more as the game progresses. These results suggest that the sociological idea that people do the right thing because they are socialized to care about others is naive. Most people do not act in a “pro-social” manner. They free-ride.

When punishment is permitted, players punish free-riders even at a cost. Public goods increase as free-riding drops. Results like this defy the economic idea of people as selfish maximizers. They also suggest that hierarchy (surveillance/punishment) need not be centralized.

In the light of these results and the rest of the course, how do you think individual internalization of social values/norms, hierarchy, decentralized market interaction, and groups combine to create social order?


20. Explain what is meant by "social control as a dependent variable."


Q111. Let's say we have a 2 year graduate program. The first year class is growing at a rapid rate 5% per year. Between the first and second years, 25% of the students change their minds or get jobs and leave the program. Among the second years, 10% leave before graduation. The program currently has 20 first year and 12 second year. Write difference equations to describe population in future years.


Q115. There are no births in a Shaker community, only R recruits per year. The death rate is d. What is the difference equation that describes this situation?


Q318. What does the indicatrix on this Fuller projection or "Dymaxion" map tell you about this projection (which projects the globe onto an icosohedron and then unfolds the solid figure)?

FullerProjection.png

Q47. Use NodeXL to visualize the following networks

Node List
A, B, C, E
B, A, C, F
C, A, D
D, B, E, F
E, B, F
F, A, D, E

Edge List

A, B
A, C
A, E
B, A
C, A
C, B,
C, D
D, B
D, E
D, F
E, F
F, B
F, C
F, D

Full Matrix

A B C D E F
A - 1 0 0 0 1
B - 0 0 1 1
C - 1 1 1
D - 1 0
E - 0
F -


Q169. Consider the 12 block neighborhood bounded by parks on the north and south and major thoroughfares on the east and west. Green houses are supporting Obama, purple houses Romney.

p0169-segregation.gif

Using the facing blocks delineated by the red dashed lines as units (it yields 15 of them), calculate the index of dissimilarity.


Q71. Consider this little bit of logic that describes a tourist's thinking process (taken from the title of a 1970s movie): “if it’s Tuesday, this must be Belgium. Otherwise, I have no idea where we are.” Sketch a flowchart that represents this flow of thought.


Q407. Weber's definition, please:

power
legitimacy
authority


Q274. Fill in the names of the "districts" in Oakland.

oakland-districts-blank.png

Q137. Derive the equation for the equilibrium value of a difference equation from a formula that shows how Pn+1 relates to Pn.


Q28. Consider the three networks in the figure below. For each one, calculate the ratio of actual number of edges to the most maximum number of edges possible (assuming the graphs are simple).

sampleNetworks01.gif

Q338. "As an entity [a thought collective] is even more stable and consistent than the so-called individual, who always consists of contradictory drives" (57.8). Explain what Fleck means.


Q70. If social order equals coordination and cooperation, provide some illustrations that support the authors' contention that "the problem of social order underlies questions of central concern to sociologists in substantive areas as diverse as crime and deviance, social movements, organizations, politics, religion, international relations, and the family" (xiii.1). Use this an opportunity to show you can distinguish cooperation and coordination and in general "get" the course. Perhaps add a category or two of your own.


Q406. Attribute and explicate: "…every genuine form of domination implies a minimum of voluntary compliance, that is, an interest in compliance."


Q454. Consider the essay you wrote for the warm-up assignment at the start of this course on a film or book in which social order "disappeared." How would you re-write it in a manner that would show off some of what you learned in this course?


Q255. Work through the section on direct reciprocity in Nowak and Sigmund, "How Populations Cohere."


Q295. Locate these prominent California geographic features:

CA-nine-features.png
  • Cascade Mountains
  • Coastal Mountains
  • Colorado River
  • Kalamath Mountains
  • Mojave Desert
  • Sacramento River
  • Sacramento Valley
  • San Joaquin Valley
  • San Joaquin River
  • Sierra Nevada Mountains

Q139. Wordsmith the following passage from the first paragraph of a paper about Erving Goffman's Presentation of Self in Everyday Life.

In Presentation of Self, Erving Goffman states that a front is "that part of the individual's performance which regularly functions in a general and fixed fashion to define the situation for those who observe the performance" (p.22). In other words, you need to have an image of how you want people to see you at a certain point in time.


Q419. What does Hayek mean by "teleological shorthand"?

The use of “purposive" in this sense as a sort of ‘teleological shorthand’, as it has been called by biologists, is unobjectionable so long as we do not imply an awareness of purpose on the part of the elements, but mean merely that the elements have acquired regularities of conduct conducive to the maintenance of the order — presumably because those who did act in certain ways had within the resulting order a better chance of survival than those who did not." (143.9)


Q438. Consult the text at 243.9ff : "Reality seems valueless by comparison with the dreams of fevered imaginations; reality is therefore abandoned, but so is possibility abandoned when it in turn becomes reality. A thirst arises for novelties…." Use Durkheim to say something about advertising - for products, for body images, etc.


Q456. Provide a high level comparison of shared meaning, hierarchy, markets, and groups as sources of social organization understood as coordination and cooperation.


Q78. Sketch a flow chart that represents the following writing protocol: (1) Edit your essay until it is perfect. (2) While the essay still needs work, edit your essay.


Q347. George Herbert Mead writes of "taking the attitude of the other" as a necessary part of social life.

"…the complex co-operative processes … organized human society are also possible only in so far as every individual involved in them … can take the general attitudes of all other such individuals … and can direct his own behavior accordingly" (61.5).

Give an example of a social situation that bears this out, describing the various participants and how they can "take the attitude of the others" and what would happen if they got it wrong, or in situations where people do this less well or less completely.


Q341. Explain what George Herbert Mead means when he describes "self consciousness" as becoming aware of oneself as an object for others. How is it that this is what gives rise to the "social self"?


Q233. Hobbes sees social order as impossible without hierarchy. Address both the question of coordination and cooperation (to see the cooperation here, we might think about Adam Smith’s notion of bartering as a means by which two actors can both get what they want) as you explain how Hobbes gets from his assumptions about human nature to the need for a “Leviathan” if human-kind is to achieve social order.

Hobbes, from "Leviathan"

“So that in the first place I put for a general inclination of all mankind a perpetual and restless desire of power after power, that ceaseth only in death. And the cause of this is not always that a man hopes for a more intensive delight than he has already attained to, or that he cannot be content with a moderate power; but because he cannot assure the power and means to live well which he hath present, without the acquisition of more” (89).

“Hereby it is manifest that, during the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that condition which is called war, and such a war as is of every man against every man” (93).

“In such condition there is no place for industry, because the fruit thereof is uncertain, and consequently no culture of the earth, no navigation nor use of the commodities that may be imported by sea, no commodious building, no instruments of moving and removing such things as require much force, no knowledge of the face of the earth; no account of time, no arts, no letters, no society, and, which is worst of all, continual fear and danger of violent death, and the life of man solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short” (93-4).

“If a covenant be made wherein neither of the parties perform presently but trust one another, in the condition of mere nature, which is a condition of war of every man against every man, upon any reasonable suspicion, it is void; but, if there be a common power set over them both with right and force sufficient to compel performance, it is not void” (97).


Q86. Sort clients into four categories promising, troubling, recalcitrant, hopeless on the basis of two tests which can be passed or failed.


Q467. (a) Provide an example that illustrates how the IRR criteria can give wrong answer. (b) Provide an example that illustrates how payback period criterion can give the wrong answer. (c) Describe how risk, safety and hedonism might enter into the calculations in discounting problems.


Q359. Demonstrate your understanding of the Karl Marx excerpt and its connection to ideas about how the nature of the social individual is a "source" of social order by explaining this diagram. Use examples to illustrate your ideas.

sharedmeaningToOrderMarx.png

Q356. Demonstrate your understanding of the George Herbert Mead excerpt and its connection to ideas about how the nature of the social individual is a "source" of social order by explaining this diagram. Use examples to illustrate your ideas.

sharedmeaningToOrderMead.png

Q452. Develop a summary diagram for the entire course. Some examples of the genre from a social control class in solutions.


Q37. Centrality Problems


Q221. For each of the problems described below, say whether it is best thought of as an analog to diet, transport, activity, or assignment as outlined above.

  1. S&Z problem #1 Incinerators DIET TRANSPORT ACTIVITY ASSIGNMENT
  2. S&Z problem #2 Police Shifts DIET TRANSPORT ACTIVITY ASSIGNMENT
  3. S&Z problem #3 Hospitals and disasters DIET TRANSPORT ACTIVITY ASSIGNMENT
  4. S&Z problem #4 Electricity generation and pollution DIET TRANSPORT ACTIVITY ASSIGNMENT
  5. S&Z text example – transit maintenance DIET TRANSPORT ACTIVITY ASSIGNMENT

Q99. We want to apply for a home equity line of credit. The bank says it has to know what your house is worth (It has to be worth a certain amount over what we still owe on the mortgage to get a loan at a good rate). A loan at a bad rate will cost $10,000 more than a loan at a good rate. We think there is a 60:40 chance that our house is in fact worth enough to get a good rate. We have a choice between a cheap appraisal ($100) and an expensive appraisal ($1000). A cheap appraisal, we have learned, has a 40% chance of correctly valuing a property. An expensive appraisal is right 70% of the time. Draw a decision tree that will help us figure out what to do.


Q477. This is one of a series of problems (469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands.

Earlier in the process, two options were on the table for the community of Ourville. One proposal was for a pocket park that will cost only $10 and is projected to have $50 benefit — a benefit to cost ratio of 5 to 1. The other proposal is a more elaborate park that will cost $50 and have a benefit of $100 — a benefit to cost ratio of 2 to 1. The town budget could afford either project – either one pocket park or one larger park, but not both. What would you recommend and why?


Q461. Consider the task of building a logic model for a setting up an "academic excellence center" on campus. Brainstorm about resources, activities, outputs, and outcomes. For each category, give examples of too much detail, not enough detail, and just the right amount of detail for a straightforward logic model.


Q271. With reference to cartography, explain what we mean by scale, resolution, simplification/abstraction, representation, point, line, area, volume


Q474. This is one of a series of problems (469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 475, 476, 477, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands.

The mayor of Ourville wants a more detailed analysis on option A. Apparently, the park could range in size from the very small to the very large. Budget concerns are not an issue for now. Examine the information below. What do you recommend and why? For example: What type of problem is this? What is the fundamental rule? How big should the park be?

q0474-cba-01.jpg

Q326. (A) Consider this plot of Pn+1 vs. Pn. Without worrying about what sort of system it might be, show that you understand how the chart works by describing the behavior of this system if it starts at time i at Pi=30. How about 70?

PNvPN%2B1chart.png

(B) If this is a model of attendance at, say, a protest rally with the axes representing percentage of the population, and Pn is how many showed up last week (a number everyone knows) and Pn+1 is how many that means we can expect this week (based on the distribution of individual thresholds - how many people need to be going for me to decide to go), how would you interpret the gaps A and B on the chart?

(C) Think about the "standing ovation model." What features does it add to the basic model described here.


Q316. What is Tissot's Indicatrix and what is it used for?


Q372. Explain the difference between cooperation and coordination as we are using them in this course. Give examples to support your explanation.


Q103. Suppose we are running a program to which we want to accept only individuals in the top 25% of the population (on some measurable trait). Unfortunately, our test for measuring the trait is only 80% accurate. Draw event tree and flip to show what kind of faith we can have in the test results. Which test result appears more worthy of taking at face value? Which group would you be inclined to develop a second test for?


Q464. (a) Suppose a friend makes the following offer: "I am willing to give you $10 right now, 25$ in 3 years or $200 in ten years." Describe the logic you might use to see which of these is the best deal. Calculate the present value of each opportunity and use the results to sketch a simple decision tree. Assume a discount rate of 5%

(b)If you have the choice between paying a cash price right now or spreading the payments out over 12 months with no interest, which would you choose and why?


Q197. Explain and give an example of a dominant strategy in a prisoner's dilemma game.


Q323. What flow chart concept does this diagram illustrate? Explain what it means and how we use it. Draw the series of flow charts implied by this diagram.

levels-of-detail.gif

Q358. Demonstrate your understanding of the Ludwik Fleck excerpt and its connection to ideas about how the nature of the social individual is a "source" of social order by explaining this diagram. Use examples to illustrate your ideas.

sharedmeaningToOrderFleck.png

Q69. Define "coordination" and give five examples of coordination problems that you dealt with today.


Q446. Walk us through Tocqueville's contrast of aristocratic society where citizens are bound to, say, their local noble, and democratic society where citizens are independent. He wants to say that the latter can't get anything done unless they know how to organize and associate.


Q453.

Q337. In "Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact" Ludwik Fleck starts out with the bold statement that "cognition is the most socially-conditioned activity…." Why is this a bold statement? What conventional assumption is he contradicting at the outset?

Q338. "As an entity [a thought collective] is even more stable and consistent than the so-called individual, who always consists of contradictory drives" (57.8). Explain what Fleck means.

Q339. Ludwik Fleck wrote: "what actually thinks within a person is not the individual himself but his social community" (Hechter & Horne 59.5). Explain wha


Q106. She may love you or she may not. It turns out there is a 40% chance she does. You decide to use the buttercup test to find out (hold a buttercup under chin and see if it reflects yellow). The test is 90% accurate. Draw tree and flip to determine what conclusions we can draw from positive and negative buttercup test results.


Q59. Consider the following things2 that can flow or move on a network:

Used books
Money
Smiles
Gossip
Taught knowledge
Mooching friends/relatives
Email
Attitudes
Workers (flowing among jobs)
Infection
Packages
Greetings
Tips/how-to-info
Help/favors/acts of kindness

Categorize these in terms of four characteristics:

  1. The mechanics of diffusion: does diffusion occur via replication (copy mechanism) or transfer (move mechanism)?
  2. (applicable only to replication-based flows) Is the duplication is one at a time (serial), like giving a paperback to a friend, or simultaneous (parallel), like a radio broadcast.
  3. Does the traffic flow deliberately or blindly/randomly?
  4. Does the traffic revisit places it's already been? That is, is the flow on paths (no node repeats), trails (no edge repeats), or walks (visiting nodes and edges perhaps repeatedly).

Q25. Use NodeXL to reproduce the organizational chart below. Take note of the appearance of the network with various layout options. Try changing the type to "directed" in the chart panel of the NodeXL ribbon. What do you say about organizational charts as networks from examining the different layouts?

orgchart01.gif
President VP1
President VP2
VP1 Mgr1
VP1 Mgr2
VP2 Staff1
Mgr2 Staff2
Mgr2 Staff3
Mgr2 Staff4

Q105. Following on problem 104, suppose the test is not painless or without its own risks. Suppose the "cost" of the test is 5. And suppose the treatment is also not so nice and the cost of the treatment is 15. But if you have the disease and you are not treated, the results are nasty : 50. Do we have enough information to recommend a course of action? What should we do?


Q247. What's wrong with this flow chart? How would you fix it?

flowchart-bad-03.png

Q448. Why is the Tocqueville selection in the "groups as a source of social order" section of the text?


Q51. To transpose a matrix we simply swap its rows and columns:

A B C
D E F
G H I
> > > > A D G
B E H
C F I

or

A B C
D E F
> > > > A D
B E
C F

If the matrix is called $M$ then we write the transpose of M as $tr(M)$.

Transpose these three matrices

A B C
A B C D
D E F G
0 1 0 2
1 0 3 1
0 3 0 4
2 1 4 0
1 1 0
0 1 1
1 0 1

Q165. What's the difference between an "equation-based model" and an "agent model"? What are some other synonyms we might hear for these terms?


21. Coser combines the insight that sometimes deviance is functional (as well as harmful) with the insight that groups don’t always reject rule breakers to form a typology of four social control scenarios. Label the rows and columns of the 2x2 table to the right with the appropriate values.
A B
C D

Q409. Is punk rock anti-hierarchical? Or is there a Willis-ian way in which it reproduces the hierarchy it loathes? Does this dynamic track with Weber's notion of "voluntary submission"?

punkademia.jpg

Q57. Facebook Ego Network with Gephi


Q143. Wordsmith this opening sentence:

I will discuss some of the concepts discussed by Erving Goffman in his book The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, which he elaborates face to face interactions, and the different roles that everyone takes in presenting themselves.


Q256. Consider the collective action model described in Lecture 17.4: Collective Action and Common Pool Resource Problems where $x_j$ is the cost to me to "pitch in" and do my part in some collective effort. Each member of the collective reaps benefits from the contributions of those who decide to pitch in. In particular, they receive some fraction $\beta$ of all the contributions. Their net benefit is thus, this amount minus the effort they contribute. In other words,

(2)
\begin{align} Payoff_j = -x_j + \beta \sum x_i \end{align}

Suppose you are in a class of 21 students and everyone is expected to prepare for class in a manner that costs 1 unit of life. In the class itself, things go much better when people are prepared and we estimate that the benefit a student derives from the class is equal to 0.2 units of life for each person who comes prepared.

(a) What is your net payoff if you do the reading half the class rest of the class comes prepared too?
(b) What is the benefit to a shirker under the same conditions?
(c) How many people do you need to think are going to do the reading to make it worth it to do the reading?


Q343. Dov Cohen and Joe Vandello report on several lab experiments in the article on cultures of violence. One experiment involved "annoying" subjects who thought they were doing an experiment on "art therapy." Describe the design of this experiment, its findings, and their relevance to the theoretical ideas explored in Cohen and Vandello's article.


Q278. Explain these acronyms: PNG, TIF, geoTIF


Q265. Identify graphical elements of a map: border, legend, scalebar, north arrow, author, date, projection, coordinates, data source, data date, title, body of map


Q363. Demonstrate your understanding of Weber's typology of social action in the context of this course by explaining this diagram.

weber-types-of-action-01.png

Q337. In "Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact" Ludwik Fleck starts out with the bold statement that "cognition is the most socially-conditioned activity…." Why is this a bold statement? What conventional assumption is he contradicting at the outset?


Q76. Sketch a flowchart that represents this bit of logic: If I have anything that is due tomorrow then if I am acing the class already and if I have some money I’ll go out drinking by myself (since all my friends will be busy), but if I don’t have any money I’ll stay home and watch reruns on cable. If, on the other hand, I’m not acing this class, I’ll stay home and study. If I don’t have anything due tomorrow, then if I have some money I’ll see if some friends are around and if so I’ll party with them. Otherwise, I’ll drink alone. If I don’ t have any money I’ll just stay home and watch reruns on cable.


Q296. (1) Read this thematic map. (2) Offer a critique of its graphic design.


Q196. Explain this table:

PD-table-Axelrod.gif

17. Coser described several theorists whose work looked at "social control from the inside." What's the "technical term" for "social control from the inside"? Name three of these theorists and provide some identifying information (e.g., "Tongan psychotherapist who wrote in 1920s").


Q204. Suppose the agents in a population have four behaviors - W, X, Y, Z - and that each behavior is either present or absent. When two agents meet they may have all the same behaviors, none of the same behaviors, or 1 or 2 behaviors in common. Suppose the probability of interaction is proportional to their similarity. IF they do interact, they flip a coin and who ever wins gets imitated by the other agent.

In the grid below, determine the probability of interaction between each pair of neighbors (assume no diagonal interaction for now)

A
1110
B
1010
C
0010
D
1001
E
0000
F
1111
G
1001
H
1011
I
1000
J
1000
K
1110
L
0000
M
0010
N
1100
O
0100
P
0111

Q114. A totalitarian country that prohibits migration has a birth rate b and a death rate d. How does the population change from one year to the next?

We can interpret "birth rate" or "death rate" in two ways — as a rate, for example, deaths per 100 people — or as an absolute number, for example, 5 people per year. In general, we will mean the former.

Let $P_{i}$ be the population in year i. Write an expression for the population in year i+1. If the population in a given year is 100 and birth rate, b, is 5% and the death rate, d, is 6%, write out the population for the next 5 years.


Q126. Why do people scream into cell phones? Answer in terms of feedback.


Q302. What is the significance of this map? What does it show? Who made it? When was it made?

snowsmap.png

Q386. "…the state arose from the need to keep class antagonisms in check…." Attribute and explain.


Q350. Some people summarize Durkheim's "theory of religion" by saying that he discovered that "god is society." Explain the logic of this.


Q67. Work through the first half of chapter 7 of the NodeXL book using the senate data.

Let's see if we can find some structure within either or both of the parties. The last exercise the text book suggests — changing the edge filtering threshold (basically eliminating edges below some threshold so that we only count it as a similarity edge if, say, two senators vote together 75% of the time) — let's us see some variation.

But what if we look only at Republican-Republican edges?

=VLOOKUP([@[Vertex 1]],Vertices[[Vertex]:[Party]],28)&"-"&VLOOKUP([@[Vertex 2]],Vertices[[Vertex]:[Party]],28)


Q422. What do we mean saying that Axelrod is trying to discover the conditions in which cooperation can emerge?


Q149. Diction, etc.

Individuals seek perpetual information about how they present themselves in their current social position and how to meaningfully readjust themselves based on their circumstances. Goffman illustrates this presentation adjustment by stating that people engage in “… performance which regularly functions in a general and fixed fashion to define the situation for those who observe the performance” (p.22).

Goffmans argues that the front is made up of two main parts: the setting and the personal front.

Goffman writes that a part of an individual’s performance is established in the “front”. This includes the setting, appearance of self, and manner.

Goffman describes the necessity for a player to believe in the part one is playing.


Q470. This is one of a series of problems (469, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands.

One part of the staff report talks about discounting. A resident asks "where do discount rates come from?" Your (BRIEF) answer:


Q230. A store wants to liquidate 200 of its shirts and 100 pairs of pants from last season. They have decided to put together two offers, A and B. Offer A is a package of one shirt and a pair of pants which will sell for $30. Offer B is a package of three shirts and a pair of pants, which will sell for $50. The store does not want to sell less than 20 packages of Offer A and less than 10 of Offer B. How many packages of each do they have to sell to maximize the money generated from the promotion? (From VITutor)


Q460. Modify this as you like so it refers to a trip project you might plan with family or friends.

We are proposing an inexpensive family trip from Charleston, South Carolina, to Des Moines, Iowa, to visit relatives during December school holidays. The seasonal trip we dream of taking from Charleston to Des Moines is the “program.” Basic assumptions about our trip “program” are:

  • We want to visit relatives between 12/10/00 and 1/5/01 while the children are out of school.
  • We will fly from South Carolina to Iowa because it takes less time than driving and because frequent flier (FF) miles are available.
  • Using frequent flier miles will reduce travel costs.

We have to determine the factors influencing our trip, including necessary resources, such as, the number of family members, scheduled vacation time, the number of frequent flier miles we have, round trip air reservations for each family member, and transportation to and from our home to the airport. The activities necessary to make this happen are the creation of our own family holiday schedule, securing our Iowa relative’s schedule, garnering air line information and reservations and planning for transportation to and from the airport.


Q473. This is one of a series of problems (469, 470, 471, 472, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478) relating to the same fictional case: The community of Ourville which is considering some options for creating parks to enhance the quality of life of local residents. The amounts are expressed in simple numbers – e.g., $100 – which you can assume to be referring to realistic amounts – e.g., hundreds of thousands.

Two options are on the table for the community of Ourville. Either option will cost $100. Option A — the West Park – provides $80 of benefits (total) to families who live close to the west park location and $52 (total) to families who live farther away on the east side of town. Option B – the East Park – provides $40 to the first group of families and $110 to the second group. What do you recommend and why?

q0473-cba-01.jpg