In this excerpt form his book “Principals of Group Solidarity” 1987, Hechter discusses dependence, group sanctions to ensure compliance, and how group solidarity can only be achieve through the presence of both these factors.

Rational egoists always prefer to be self-reliant but will join groups if the group provides a good that they are dependant on but cannot supply for themselves. The author breaks down the strength of dependence into four factors. The supply of close substitutes, information about alternatives, costs of moving, and strength of personal ties. Depending on these factors, a member may be willing to accept many obligations in order to obtain the joint good, or may not.

No matter the level of dependence, there will still be an incentive to free ride.

So, it is necessary for the group to have consequences for noncompliance as well as a system for monitoring members. The relationship between control and compliance has two parts. The group must be able to reward participation based on the individual’s contributions, this is sanctioning capacity, and also be able to detect whether individuals comply with obligations, this is monitoring capacity.

Group solidarity can only be achieved through the presence of both dependence and control.