In "Egoistic Suicide" (1897), Emile Durkheim argues that egoism is not a contributing factor to suicide, but rather is the fundamental cause. Egoism, also known as excessive individualism, stems from a disconnection with society and the value system that characterizes societal membership. Thus, it is not that human’s organic needs could not satisfy the individual, rather it is that society has programmed the individual to feel that meeting their organic needs is not sufficient. This then creates a relationship with societal membership where one’s participation in society is intrinsic to one’s feeling of fulfillment. The problem arises when connection with society dissolves. In this situation the individual is cut off from societal obligations and left without a foundation of comparison for their higher achievements, ultimately leaving them alone with obligation only to their organic and biological needs. It is because society has programmed the individual to feel that such a state is not fulfilling, Durkheim argues, that the individual comes to the realization that their life will end in nothingness and in the end be forgotten. It is in this state of excessive individualism, against the backdrop of a socially constructed value system, that the struggles of living no longer seem rational. Suicide thus ensues. In conclusion, it is the transition from social membership to egoic existence, Emile Durkeim explains, that leads to suicide. (A.Izdebski)