1. Weber : modernization as changes in bases of human action associated with shifts in the historical situation.
      1. Conceptual foundation: focus on subjective meaning actors attach to actions oriented toward the re-actions of others in specific historical contexts
      2. Then, distinguish four types of action – purposeful, value oriented, emotional, traditional
        1. Purposeful, goal oriented (zweckrational): e.g., Engineer or investment banker
        2. Value oriented (wertrational): e.g., striving for salvation by rational means
        3. Emotional/Affective : not based on means/end reasoning, e.g., religious services in a fundamentalist sect
        4. Traditional: guided by customary habits of thought, e.g., an orthodox Jewish congregation