Weber, Max. 1921. "Types of Social Action" (r002)
- Weber : modernization as changes in bases of human action associated with shifts in the historical situation.
- Conceptual foundation: focus on subjective meaning actors attach to actions oriented toward the re-actions of others in specific historical contexts
- Then, distinguish four types of action – purposeful, value oriented, emotional, traditional
- Purposeful, goal oriented (zweckrational): e.g., Engineer or investment banker
- Value oriented (wertrational): e.g., striving for salvation by rational means
- Emotional/Affective : not based on means/end reasoning, e.g., religious services in a fundamentalist sect
- Traditional: guided by customary habits of thought, e.g., an orthodox Jewish congregation