Jeniferiz R010 87.1 According to Thomas Hobbes, reasoning is just adding and subtracting or multiplying and dividing to get a total.
Jeniferiz R010 87.2 The total of our reasoning helps us figure out the consequences of our actions.
Jeniferiz R010 87.9 There is always a place for reason. Without reason we have nothing.
CDunlap01 R010 88.5 Where there is math there is reason.
Jeniferiz R010 89.2 We all have different desires/interests, but we all want a peaceful life. Hint of social contract?
CDunlap01 R010 89.4 it is human nature to have a want/desire for power
Jeniferiz R010 89.6 Mankind has a difficult time being content with what they have. We always want more.
CDunlap01 R010 89.7 it is human nature to have a want/desire for power
Jeniferiz R010 90.1 Men who are content are more likely to be happy with a common power. Men who are needy/unhappy are more apt to war
CDunlap01 R010 90.3 Men desire a common power, other than their own, for protection
CDunlap01 R010 91.1 Man must expect revenge or expect forgiveness. Both are hateful.
CDunlap01 R010 91.2 Man must turn to society to secure life and liberty.
Jeniferiz R010 91.2 When we are oppressed, we look to society for help.
CDunlap01 R010 91.3 Religion is used to explain things man fears.
Jeniferiz R010 91.4 In order to explain natural causes we attribute them to God.
Jeniferiz R010 91.7 dReligion was born out of things that we fear.
Jeniferiz R010 92.2Natural cond. mankind = They will gang up on each other to protect themselves.
CDunlap01 R010 92.7 If men want what other men have is causes war. War is inevitable between men.
Jeniferiz R010 92.8 If a man desires what another man has = War
Jeniferiz R010 93.5 Men fight for 3 reasons, power, safety, and reputation.
CDunlap01 R010 93.6 Common power = Peace
CDunlap01 R010 93.6 War is caused by competition (invade for gain), diffidence (…for safety), and glory (…for reputation)
Jeniferiz R010 93.7 If all men agree to one power instead of individual power there would be peace. This sound like a social contract…
Jeniferiz R010 94.1 State of nature = every man for himself. Anarchy! Life will be solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short.
Jeniferiz R010 94.3 We all have to agree on who will make the laws, if not, the laws cannot be made.
CDunlap01 R010 94.4 Actions are not a sin if there is no law to forbid them. In order for there to be laws a common person must create them.
CDunlap01 R010 94.4 Natural condition of man kind, without social control, would consist of war, violence, death
CDunlap01 R010 94.4 Natural condition of mankind, w/o social control, would consist of war, violence, death.
Jeniferiz R010 94.5 If we fear no common power it will create civil war.
Jeniferiz R010 94.8 Where there is no common power there are no laws or justice.
CDunlap01 R010 95.2 Fear of death creates peace among men.
Jeniferiz R010 95.2 Some reasons men want peace is because they are afraid to die. Articles of peace = Laws of Nature
CDunlap01 R010 95.4 Laws of nature affirms self preservation and go against self destruction.
Jeniferiz R010 95.4 The right of nature = we have the right to defend ourselves, but should be seeking peace.
CDunlap01 R010 95.7 Laws of nature are known by all because of their ability to reason.
CDunlap01 R010 96.2 1st Law of Nature: to want peace fulfills our right to defend ourselves
Jeniferiz R010 96.4 2nd Law of Nature - laws and peace must be agreed upon by all to work.
CDunlap01 R010 96.5 2nd Law: social contract, must agree on terms for it to be successful
Jeniferiz R010 96.8 All men have rights and we have to respect the rights of others.
Jeniferiz R010 97.3 Since we cannot trust a mans word, We must have contracts to ensure that we keep our word. Must also b conseq. for break
Jeniferiz R010 97.5 Part of the contract is that men should be punished fairly.
Jeniferiz R010 Competition for power, wealth, glory, or honor = War
Jeniferiz R010 Part of the contract is men must be punished fairly.
CDunlap01 R010 Where there is math there is reason.
RBareiss R011 100.3 Modern state first formed by its territorial groupings, "without regards to gens or tribe"
RBareiss R011 100.8 Secondly, state is formed by need to police those who lack power; through police, prisons, & coercive institutions
RBareiss R011 100.8 State requires monetary resources to support it, thus institutes taxes & contracts loans
RBareiss R011 100.9 State forces gain credibility & power, thus they are able to stand above society and become their own authority
RBareiss R011 101.4 Society is controlled by those with most power who use their power to exploit those without it
RBareiss R011 101.7 Originally power based on property rights, now based on wealth
RBareiss R011 102.2 By giving oppressed classes some rights, dominant class can control & keep them content
SOC116 R011 102.2 By giving oppressed classes some rights, dominant class can control & keep them content” & even co-opt them
RBareiss R011 102.3 without class inequalities the state would become irrelevant
RBareiss R011 99.7 Three main forms of state: gentile (based on kinship), gentile and plebian (2 divided classes) & territorial
RBareiss R011 99.9 State is formed by struggles and contradictions within itself
dnswint R013 122.1 Counter-school culture is characterized by general and personal opposition to authority, as expressed by "the lads"
dnswint R013 122.5 The lads feel teachers assume more authority than deserved
LuluThrower R013 122.7 According to a group of students, authority figures rank themselves above others which is perceived as inequality.
dnswint R013 123.1-3 Students say teachers abuse power, students subject to their "whim" and staff is enemy
LuluThrower R013 123.4 Teachers are viewed as enemies because they enforce restrictions/regulations against the restraint of students.
LuluThrower R013 123.5 The outcome of the authority figure is the opposite of what it stands for: diligence, deference, and respect.
LuluThrower R013 123.8 Opposition to authority is expressed as a style lived out in many small ways, thus teachers become conspiracy theorists.
dnswint R013 123.9 The students practice opposition to authority almost inherently in daily life
dnswint R013 124.1 Willis notes that there is a conspiratorial language between the students, and ready excuses
LuluThrower R013 124.3 The students rebel out of caged resentment, which stops short of an outright confrontation, masterminds of excuses.
LuluThrower R013 124.3 The students rebel out of caged resentment, which stops short of an outright confrontation, masterminds of excuses.
LuluThrower R013 124.9 There are students who conform to authority because they support the idea of teachers and the formal aims of education.
LuluThrower R013 125.3 Conformist students believe success of teachers is due to their level of "strictness."
dnswint R013 125.4-5 lads view ear'oles as passive/dispassionate inferiors
LuluThrower R013 125.7 Rebel students stand for fun, excitement, and independence, and view themselves as superior to conformist students.
dnswint R013 126.1-5 lads view cooperation and hard work in school as waste of time and prefer having a "laff"
LuluThrower R013 126.6 Rebel student's behaviors center around consumer goods supplied by capitalism: clothing, cigarettes, and alcohol.
dnswint R013 126.6-9 clothes are a huge indicator of counter-school culture-distinction from conformity and institution= visible resistance
dnswint R013 127.1 Commercial (cultural) materials are given meaning beyond their manufactured origin by how youth uses it to express
SOC116 r013 127.2 conflicting groups "select" symbolic grounds for struggle.
LuluThrower R013 127.2 Importance of commercial youth culture, the way its used shows directness/authenticity of personal expression.
SOC116 R013 127.3 "It can be resolved, finally, into a question about the legitimacy of school as an institution."
dnswint R013 127.3-8 style of clothing dually beneficial- challenge authority; boost attractiveness (violates anti-sex activity policy)
LuluThrower R013 127.5 Clothing/style is used as an outward expression of rebellion, and boosts sexual attractiveness to the opposite sex.
LuluThrower R013 127.9 Students seek adult values, look specifically at the adult male world for ways to resist authority.
dnswint R013 127.9 youth want "mature mode of social being" and identity separate from school
dnswint R013 128.2 Willis explains the conflict is between formal and informal- school= formal, counter school culture= informal
LuluThrower R013 128.3-.5 Realtionship between school and counter-school culture = formal vs. informal.
dnswint R013 128.4- 6counter-school culture is in zone of informal; "structure" is the social group
LuluThrower R013 128.6 School is made up by formal structure, counter school culture is made up by the social group = source of resistance.
LuluThrower R013 128.9 Social interaction between friends is most important at school according to rebel students.
dnswint R013 129.1 developing a culture cannot be done individually; requires group solidarity
LuluThrower R013 129.2 Rebel students need social interaction in order to create distinct culture.
LuluThrower R013 129.4 Conformist students rat on rebel students, school is maintained and conformists faith is restored.
LuluThrower R013 129.4 question on reading: Is "grassing" referring to snitching?
dnswint R013 129.5 Willis says Truth is the formal complement of "grassing" and reproduces school and repays ear'oles
LuluThrower R013 129.7 The informal group searches for social knowledge, how things really work, and what helps you get through the day.
dnswint R013 129.9 the informal group transmits knowledge and perspectives; creates class culture distinct from dominant culture
dnswint R013 130.6 counter-school culture and working class cultures both look for "meaning and impose framework" to reshape experience
LuluThrower R013 130.6 Counter-school cultures are similar to working class culture in that they search for meaning/impose their own frameworks
dnswint R013 130.9 counter-school culture's resistance corresponds to shop-floor cultures attempt to control work process ex production
LuluThrower R013 130.9 Resistance from counter-school stems from shopfloor's attempt at control of production.
dnswint R013 131.9 shop-floor group ostracizes conformists like counter-school culture
dnswint R013 132.1-5 Willis: to shop-floor "practice is more important than theory"; practical ability rather than theoretical knowledge
LuluThrower R013 132.3 Shopfloor group believes practice is more important than theory, social theory is inferior to practicality
dnswint R013 132.6 theory to working class is in practical application, in middle class as means to apply for upward mobility
LuluThrower R013 132.7 Theory=material world. Middle class uses theory to gain access to higher class, working class sees hollowness in theory.
LuluThrower R013 Conformists are ostracized by shopfloor group, just as in counter-school culture.
SOC116 R013 great paired reading would be J Katz "The Ways of the Badass" in Seductions of Crime.
LuluThrower R013 Shopfloor group believes practice is more important than theory, social theory is inferior to practicality.