We have talked about "the problem of order" in terms of coordination and cooperation.
We have talked about ways that the individual or "self" can be a "solution" to the problem of order. The self can be "socially programmed" so that at least part of its nature is to cooperate and coordinate for the social good.
Marx had individuals whose mental contents derived from productive relations and partly got organized to support existing social arrangements.
Mead had the very development of individuals being tied to internalized expectations about others, both specific and "in general" and the commonality of the latter allows us to collectively participate in a working pro-social machine.
Durkheim had another story about how we internalize the norms of the group — how social groups and their collective understandings (representations) are what we will today talk about as Hobbes' leviathan.
Finally, Cohen et al. produced an empirical study which confirmed the idea that our most fundamental styles of thinking are culturally embedded. Human nature is, as it were, not "pre-social."
Last problem was 0480 (HELP)
Q373. Explain what we mean by the phrase "necessary but not sufficient" AND how this applies to the idea that a common language and shared meaning are necessary for social order.
Q374. "Social order triumphs over the state of nature by coercion…." Attribute and explain.
Q375. Hobbes and Engels both give us a vision of the state. Hechter and Horne suggest that "Instead of a world made up of equal individuals, Engels's starting point is a society made up of unequal classes." Show what you know about Hobbes and Engels but explaining this statement.
Q376. In the context of Engels, what is a class? What are the main classes under feudalism? Capitalism?
Q377. Explain, in your own words, the concept of "sociological clones" (H&H 84).
Q378. "From an economic point of view, coercion is simply too expensive to be the sole basis of social order" (Hechter and Horne, 85). Explain what this is getting at. How does it lead us to Weber's concept of legitimate domination.
Q379. "Marx and Engels suggest that the disadvantaged are duped by the institutions and ideology of the ruling class" (Hechter and Horne, 85). Elaborate.
Q380. Compare patrimonialism, bureaucracy, and charismatic authority in terms of the efficiency of maintaining order and ensuring loyalty among a leader's staff.
Q381. Convert penultimate paragraph of Hechter & Horne's introduction into a table that summarizes the theories in this section. Start with their suggestion that each theory has some group dominating others and each has different process leading to this and different consequences deriving from it.
"Each of the readings in this section argues…. from generation to generation."
Q382. "A central idea in the readings in this section is that government matters" (87). Extend this idea to say that "organizations matter" in an argument about why some hierarchy is needed if we are to cooperate in groups of more than a few to get things done.
Q383. Define the following words/phrases as used by Hobbes
laudable actions (90.5)
redound … to their posterity (90.6)
hope of requitall (90.8)
secret machination (92.2)
Jus and Lex (95.7)
Q384. Hobbes suggests that in a state of "warre" "there is no place for Industry…no culture…no Navigation…no commodious Building…no Knowledge…." (93.9). Explain how this can be translated as "none of the benefits of cooperation."
Q385. Explain the following words, terms, phrases found in Engels' "The Origin of the State" excerpt.
gentile constitution (99.3):
mark constitution (99.5)
joint-stock company (101.5)
universal suffrage (102.1)
Prussian Junkers (101.4)
Q386. "…the state arose from the need to keep class antagonisms in check…." Attribute and explain.
Q387. Explain the following words/terms as used in Weber's excerpt on types of legitimate domination:
material interests (103.6)
abstract rules (105.2)
impersonal order (105.3)
rationally delimited jurisdiction (105.5)
[absence of] "appropriation of his official position by the incumbent" (106.4)
administrative staff (107.2)
"principle of appointment" (108.5)
"red tape" (109.7)
sine ira et studio (111.5) - See Wikipedia
utilitarian expediency (112.7)
patrimonial (113.4) - See Wikipedia
formal system of rules (116.7)
routinization of charisma (118.7)
Q388. Explain what Weber means by legal authority.
Q389. Explain what Weber means by traditional authority.
Q390. Explain what Weber means by charismatic authority.
Q391. Weber describes "monocratic bureaucracy" as an ideal type. What is an ideal type? Describe the five characteristics of an ideal typical bureaucracy.
Q392. Weber suggests that bureaucratic domination is marked by "the dominance of a spirit of formalistic impersonality" (111.45). Explain.
Q393. What does Weber mean by "social levelling"? (111)
Q394. What does Weber mean by "the routinization of charisma"? (118ff)
Q395. Explain the following terms or phrases in the context of Paul Willis' Learning to Labour.
"an aimless air of insubordination" (124.4)
"universal taboo…yielding incriminating information…to those with formal power" (129.3)
Q396. Discuss the role of the 'ear'oles in the oppositional ideology of the "lads." Why and in what ways are they important in the lads' concept of self?
Q397. Describe the "resistance culture" of the lads at school.
Q398. According to Willis, what is the "main theme of shopfloor culture"? Explain and give examples.
Q399. Identify and elaborate on three ways in which the shopfloor culture described by Willis parallels the counter-school culture he talks about.
(for final exam) Bring the phenomena Willis describes into conversation with material from the "groups" section of the course. What mechanisms described in that section might illuminate the lads' oppositional culture or shop floor culture?
Q400. Willis' Learning to Labour is often cited as an example of the social science concept of the "reproduction of social class." Explain what that phrase means to you after reading the excerpt from Willis' book.
Q401. What does Weber mean by legitimacy?
Q402. Engels suggests that throughout history the state has been "for the ruling class." Identify the three historical periods he talks about and characterize how this plays out in each.
Q403. In the excerpt from "The Origin of the State," Engels discusses the role of universal suffrage in the contemporary state. What role does he see the proletariat playing initially in this context? What trajectory does he suggest as the history unfolds?
Q404. Give a summary of the developmental story Engels tells in "The Origin of the State." Be sure your answer makes connections to the course and to our discussion of hierarchy as a source of order.
Q405. Weber says (103.5) that "rule over a considerable number of persons requires a staff…." If you read carefully you will see that the types of "authority" he is talking about refer to the leader's capacity to control and direct the staff as much as to the leader's capacity to dominate "the led." Discuss Weber's types of legitimate domination as forms of maintaining organizational integrity.
Q406. Attribute and explicate: "…every genuine form of domination implies a minimum of voluntary compliance, that is, an interest in compliance."
Q407. Weber's definition, please:
Q409. Is punk rock anti-hierarchical? Or is there a Willis-ian way in which it reproduces the hierarchy it loathes? Does this dynamic track with Weber's notion of "voluntary submission"?
Q420. Explain why Paul Willis' "Learning to Labour" was a reading in the hierarchy section of this course.
Q424. Fill in the blank boxes in this summary diagram for how hierarchy can generate social order. Note that the diagram is purely schematic - you might decide there are more or fewer boxes in different cases or the arrows might not go directly to coordination first, etc.
Q426. Weber's definition, please:
rational legal authority
|Jeniferiz||R010 87.1 According to Thomas Hobbes, reasoning is just adding and subtracting or multiplying and dividing to get a total.|
|Jeniferiz||R010 87.2 The total of our reasoning helps us figure out the consequences of our actions.|
|Jeniferiz||R010 87.9 There is always a place for reason. Without reason we have nothing.|
|CDunlap01||R010 88.5 Where there is math there is reason.|
|Jeniferiz||R010 89.2 We all have different desires/interests, but we all want a peaceful life. Hint of social contract?|
|CDunlap01||R010 89.4 it is human nature to have a want/desire for power|
|Jeniferiz||R010 89.6 Mankind has a difficult time being content with what they have. We always want more.|
|CDunlap01||R010 89.7 it is human nature to have a want/desire for power|
|Jeniferiz||R010 90.1 Men who are content are more likely to be happy with a common power. Men who are needy/unhappy are more apt to war|
|CDunlap01||R010 90.3 Men desire a common power, other than their own, for protection|
|CDunlap01||R010 91.1 Man must expect revenge or expect forgiveness. Both are hateful.|
|CDunlap01||R010 91.2 Man must turn to society to secure life and liberty.|
|Jeniferiz||R010 91.2 When we are oppressed, we look to society for help.|
|CDunlap01||R010 91.3 Religion is used to explain things man fears.|
|Jeniferiz||R010 91.4 In order to explain natural causes we attribute them to God.|
|Jeniferiz||R010 91.7 dReligion was born out of things that we fear.|
|Jeniferiz||R010 92.2Natural cond. mankind = They will gang up on each other to protect themselves.|
|CDunlap01||R010 92.7 If men want what other men have is causes war. War is inevitable between men.|
|Jeniferiz||R010 92.8 If a man desires what another man has = War|
|Jeniferiz||R010 93.5 Men fight for 3 reasons, power, safety, and reputation.|
|CDunlap01||R010 93.6 Common power = Peace|
|CDunlap01||R010 93.6 War is caused by competition (invade for gain), diffidence (…for safety), and glory (…for reputation)|
|Jeniferiz||R010 93.7 If all men agree to one power instead of individual power there would be peace. This sound like a social contract…|
|Jeniferiz||R010 94.1 State of nature = every man for himself. Anarchy! Life will be solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short.|
|Jeniferiz||R010 94.3 We all have to agree on who will make the laws, if not, the laws cannot be made.|
|CDunlap01||R010 94.4 Actions are not a sin if there is no law to forbid them. In order for there to be laws a common person must create them.|
|CDunlap01||R010 94.4 Natural condition of man kind, without social control, would consist of war, violence, death|
|CDunlap01||R010 94.4 Natural condition of mankind, w/o social control, would consist of war, violence, death.|
|Jeniferiz||R010 94.5 If we fear no common power it will create civil war.|
|Jeniferiz||R010 94.8 Where there is no common power there are no laws or justice.|
|CDunlap01||R010 95.2 Fear of death creates peace among men.|
|Jeniferiz||R010 95.2 Some reasons men want peace is because they are afraid to die. Articles of peace = Laws of Nature|
|CDunlap01||R010 95.4 Laws of nature affirms self preservation and go against self destruction.|
|Jeniferiz||R010 95.4 The right of nature = we have the right to defend ourselves, but should be seeking peace.|
|CDunlap01||R010 95.7 Laws of nature are known by all because of their ability to reason.|
|CDunlap01||R010 96.2 1st Law of Nature: to want peace fulfills our right to defend ourselves|
|Jeniferiz||R010 96.4 2nd Law of Nature - laws and peace must be agreed upon by all to work.|
|CDunlap01||R010 96.5 2nd Law: social contract, must agree on terms for it to be successful|
|Jeniferiz||R010 96.8 All men have rights and we have to respect the rights of others.|
|Jeniferiz||R010 97.3 Since we cannot trust a mans word, We must have contracts to ensure that we keep our word. Must also b conseq. for break|
|Jeniferiz||R010 97.5 Part of the contract is that men should be punished fairly.|
|Jeniferiz||R010 Competition for power, wealth, glory, or honor = War|
|Jeniferiz||R010 Part of the contract is men must be punished fairly.|
|CDunlap01||R010 Where there is math there is reason.|
|RBareiss||R011 100.3 Modern state first formed by its territorial groupings, "without regards to gens or tribe"|
|RBareiss||R011 100.8 Secondly, state is formed by need to police those who lack power; through police, prisons, & coercive institutions|
|RBareiss||R011 100.8 State requires monetary resources to support it, thus institutes taxes & contracts loans|
|RBareiss||R011 100.9 State forces gain credibility & power, thus they are able to stand above society and become their own authority|
|RBareiss||R011 101.4 Society is controlled by those with most power who use their power to exploit those without it|
|RBareiss||R011 101.7 Originally power based on property rights, now based on wealth|
|RBareiss||R011 102.2 By giving oppressed classes some rights, dominant class can control & keep them content|
|SOC116||R011 102.2 By giving oppressed classes some rights, dominant class can control & keep them contentâ€ & even co-opt them|
|RBareiss||R011 102.3 without class inequalities the state would become irrelevant|
|RBareiss||R011 99.7 Three main forms of state: gentile (based on kinship), gentile and plebian (2 divided classes) & territorial|
|RBareiss||R011 99.9 State is formed by struggles and contradictions within itself|
|dnswint||R013 122.1 Counter-school culture is characterized by general and personal opposition to authority, as expressed by "the lads"|
|dnswint||R013 122.5 The lads feel teachers assume more authority than deserved|
|LuluThrower||R013 122.7 According to a group of students, authority figures rank themselves above others which is perceived as inequality.|
|dnswint||R013 123.1-3 Students say teachers abuse power, students subject to their "whim" and staff is enemy|
|LuluThrower||R013 123.4 Teachers are viewed as enemies because they enforce restrictions/regulations against the restraint of students.|
|LuluThrower||R013 123.5 The outcome of the authority figure is the opposite of what it stands for: diligence, deference, and respect.|
|LuluThrower||R013 123.8 Opposition to authority is expressed as a style lived out in many small ways, thus teachers become conspiracy theorists.|
|dnswint||R013 123.9 The students practice opposition to authority almost inherently in daily life|
|dnswint||R013 124.1 Willis notes that there is a conspiratorial language between the students, and ready excuses|
|LuluThrower||R013 124.3 The students rebel out of caged resentment, which stops short of an outright confrontation, masterminds of excuses.|
|LuluThrower||R013 124.3 The students rebel out of caged resentment, which stops short of an outright confrontation, masterminds of excuses.|
|LuluThrower||R013 124.9 There are students who conform to authority because they support the idea of teachers and the formal aims of education.|
|LuluThrower||R013 125.3 Conformist students believe success of teachers is due to their level of "strictness."|
|dnswint||R013 125.4-5 lads view ear'oles as passive/dispassionate inferiors|
|LuluThrower||R013 125.7 Rebel students stand for fun, excitement, and independence, and view themselves as superior to conformist students.|
|dnswint||R013 126.1-5 lads view cooperation and hard work in school as waste of time and prefer having a "laff"|
|LuluThrower||R013 126.6 Rebel student's behaviors center around consumer goods supplied by capitalism: clothing, cigarettes, and alcohol.|
|dnswint||R013 126.6-9 clothes are a huge indicator of counter-school culture-distinction from conformity and institution= visible resistance|
|dnswint||R013 127.1 Commercial (cultural) materials are given meaning beyond their manufactured origin by how youth uses it to express|
|SOC116||r013 127.2 conflicting groups "select" symbolic grounds for struggle.|
|LuluThrower||R013 127.2 Importance of commercial youth culture, the way its used shows directness/authenticity of personal expression.|
|SOC116||R013 127.3 "It can be resolved, finally, into a question about the legitimacy of school as an institution."|
|dnswint||R013 127.3-8 style of clothing dually beneficial- challenge authority; boost attractiveness (violates anti-sex activity policy)|
|LuluThrower||R013 127.5 Clothing/style is used as an outward expression of rebellion, and boosts sexual attractiveness to the opposite sex.|
|LuluThrower||R013 127.9 Students seek adult values, look specifically at the adult male world for ways to resist authority.|
|dnswint||R013 127.9 youth want "mature mode of social being" and identity separate from school|
|dnswint||R013 128.2 Willis explains the conflict is between formal and informal- school= formal, counter school culture= informal|
|LuluThrower||R013 128.3-.5 Realtionship between school and counter-school culture = formal vs. informal.|
|dnswint||R013 128.4- 6counter-school culture is in zone of informal; "structure" is the social group|
|LuluThrower||R013 128.6 School is made up by formal structure, counter school culture is made up by the social group = source of resistance.|
|LuluThrower||R013 128.9 Social interaction between friends is most important at school according to rebel students.|
|dnswint||R013 129.1 developing a culture cannot be done individually; requires group solidarity|
|LuluThrower||R013 129.2 Rebel students need social interaction in order to create distinct culture.|
|LuluThrower||R013 129.4 Conformist students rat on rebel students, school is maintained and conformists faith is restored.|
|LuluThrower||R013 129.4 question on reading: Is "grassing" referring to snitching?|
|dnswint||R013 129.5 Willis says Truth is the formal complement of "grassing" and reproduces school and repays ear'oles|
|LuluThrower||R013 129.7 The informal group searches for social knowledge, how things really work, and what helps you get through the day.|
|dnswint||R013 129.9 the informal group transmits knowledge and perspectives; creates class culture distinct from dominant culture|
|dnswint||R013 130.6 counter-school culture and working class cultures both look for "meaning and impose framework" to reshape experience|
|LuluThrower||R013 130.6 Counter-school cultures are similar to working class culture in that they search for meaning/impose their own frameworks|
|dnswint||R013 130.9 counter-school culture's resistance corresponds to shop-floor cultures attempt to control work process ex production|
|LuluThrower||R013 130.9 Resistance from counter-school stems from shopfloor's attempt at control of production.|
|dnswint||R013 131.9 shop-floor group ostracizes conformists like counter-school culture|
|dnswint||R013 132.1-5 Willis: to shop-floor "practice is more important than theory"; practical ability rather than theoretical knowledge|
|LuluThrower||R013 132.3 Shopfloor group believes practice is more important than theory, social theory is inferior to practicality|
|dnswint||R013 132.6 theory to working class is in practical application, in middle class as means to apply for upward mobility|
|LuluThrower||R013 132.7 Theory=material world. Middle class uses theory to gain access to higher class, working class sees hollowness in theory.|
|LuluThrower||R013 Conformists are ostracized by shopfloor group, just as in counter-school culture.|
|SOC116||R013 great paired reading would be J Katz "The Ways of the Badass" in Seductions of Crime.|
|LuluThrower||R013 Shopfloor group believes practice is more important than theory, social theory is inferior to practicality.|
- 0233 Hobbes, from "Leviathan"
- 0238 Fehr and Gintis
- 0333 Weber: Types of Social Action
- Engels' Speech at Marx's Funeral
- Hobbes Leviathan XIII
- Weber, Max. 1921. "Types of Social Action" (r002)
- Hobbes, from "Leviathan" (R010 )
- Engels, "Origins of the State" (R011)
- Weber, "Types of Legitimate Domination" (R012)
- Willis, "Learning to Labour" (R013)
- Notes on Weber's "Ideal Type"
- Weber Politics As A Vocation From Ssr Archive
- Weber's Protestant Ethic: A Short Outline
- Wrong "The Problem Of Order"
- Collins: "The Nonrational Foundations of Rationality"
Perrow, C. Organizational Analysis: A Sociological View