0069. In The Better Angels of Ourselves, cognitive psychologist Steven Pinker suggests which of the following is/are responsible for the general decrease in violence in human society over the last 1000 years.

  1. The rise of governments as agents of "pacification" that would rather have people survive and be able to pay taxes than kill each other
  2. Evolution of the state as a third party dispute resolver
  3. Commerce that makes it more valuable to buy/sell than plunder
  4. Education and cosmopolitanism that makes it easier to empathize with "the other" and be less likely to act aggressively.
  5. Emergence of intellectual/rational discourse that requires us to think about and justify actions rather than "might makes right."
A. 1 B. 1, 2 C. 1, 2, 3 D. 1, 2, 3, 4 E. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5


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