Broadbent (John Broadbent, “Generations in Design Methodology,” The Design Journal 6, no. 1 (2003): 2–13.) describes four generations in design methodology: craft methods, in which product information is transmitted through apprenticeship; design-by-drawing methods, in which design is separate from production; hard systems methods, directed to defining and solving problems in systematic order; and soft systems methods, based on the approach that designers should be aware of the social aspects of the everyday life of users.

Celikoglu, O. M., Ogut, S. T., & Krippendorff, K. (2017). How Do User Stories Inspire Design? A Study of Cultural Probes. Design Issues, 33 (2), 84-98. https://doi.org/10.1162/DESI_a_00441