H Becker describes moral crusaders, rule creators, and moral entrepreneurs in the book Outsiders. The moral crusader is a self-righteous and fervent, certain of what is right and focused on what Weber would call the "ethic of ultimate ends." The rule creator sees herself as holy, as doing the right thing, and is only interested in seeing that people do what is right and that what is right it will be good for them. The crusader is out of a job if she is successful and so may turn into an entrepreneur who is more focused on the on-going task of rule enforcement. The crusader lives FOR the rule, the entrepreneur lives OFF the rule. (DR & AM)
Claimsmaking is a term used by J. Best (in an article on the social construction of the missing children problem) and borrowed from the study of rhetoric. It refers to the use of language to make claims about something being a problem, about the need for a law or social control response to something. In sociology it means the ways that language is used to influence the collective understanding of what is deviance and what is not, what is a social problem and what is not. We study claimsmaking by looking at the arguments used by moral crusaders and analyzing them using tools borrowed from the study of rhetoric.
"Rhetoric," as used in this course, is (1) the act of using language persuasively; (2) the persuasive use of language. These are the main senses outlined in the OED, which also records "ironical or jocular" uses from the late 16th century to the mid-19th century (such as this from 1742: "The rhetoric of John the hostler, with a new straw hat, and a pint of wine, made a second conquest over her"). Another contemporary use, related to but distinct from the first sense, is "the bombastic or disingenuous use of language to manipulate people." (AM)